10.000 let stare neolitske figurice, odkrite v jordanskih pokopih

10.000 let stare neolitske figurice, odkrite v jordanskih pokopih


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Zgodovinsko obdobje od sredine 9. tisočletja pred našim štetjem je znano kot zgodnji neolitik. V tem času se je na Bližnjem vzhodu človeška ikonografija začela širiti, vendar arheološke teorije, ki bi lahko upoštevale ta razvoj, do zdaj niso obstajale.

Nov članek, objavljen v Časopis Antika , vodilnega avtorja dr. Juana Joséja Ibáñeza, preučuje, kar je opisano kot »edinstven sklop kremenastih artefaktov iz neolitika srednjega pred-lončarstva B (8. tisočletje pr. n. št.), ki so bili odkriti na najdišču Kharaysin v Jordaniji. Toda ti artefakti niso bili toliko podobni običajnim kremenčevim orodjem, ampak se zdijo človeške oblike. Ker so jih odkrili v pokopih, skupina raziskovalcev meni, da gre za neolitske figurice, izdelane in zavržene med mrliškimi obredi in spominskimi obredi, ki so vključevali »odvzem, manipulacijo in ponovno postavitev človeških ostankov«.

Neolitske figurice, najdene v Jordaniji, so bile različnih oblik in velikosti. (Arheološka ekipa Kharaysin / Antiquity Publications Ltd )

Ali so 10.000 let stare figurice iz kremena relikvije iz neolitskih obredov smrti?

Zgodnje širjenje artefaktov v obliki človeka je na splošno povezano z naraščajočo potrebo po materialnih ikonah v podporo prevladujočim verskim prepričanjem. To je bilo v zgodnjem neolitiku močno usmerjeno k ženskim božanstvom, vendar je več znanstvenikov pokazalo, da so bile izrecno ženske figurice v bližnjevzhodnem neolitiku v manjšini.

Na novo odkriti artefakti v obliki ljudi so bili interpretirani kot kultni predmeti, nosilci magije, figure, ki se uporabljajo pri poučevanju obredov iniciacije in kot otroške igrače, toda po mnenju dr. Juana Joséja Ibáñeza je njihov "prvotni" in "dejanski" pomen bistven korak pri razumevanju, kako so pri prehodu na kmetovanje prišli do psiholoških in družbenih premikov.

Iskanje pomena starodavnih zarezanih kremenov

Kharaysin v dolini reke Zarqa v Jordaniji meri približno 25 hektarjev (62 hektarjev) in je opredeljen s štirimi primarnimi arheološkimi stopnjami zasedbe. Najzgodnejši datumi segajo v začetek 9. tisočletja pred našim štetjem, druga raven pa predstavlja drugo polovico 9. tisočletja pr. Tretja stopnja je bila zasedena v začetku 8. tisočletja pred našim štetjem, četrta stopnja pa v začetku 7. tisočletja pred našim štetjem. Na tretjem nivoju, ki sega v začetek 8. tisočletja pred našim štetjem, so bili kremeni artefakti izdelani in pokopani v ruševinah pravokotnih hiš z apnenimi tlemi.

Ortofotografija območja A. (Slika: arheološka ekipa Kharaysin/ Antiquity Publications Ltd )

Prispevek predstavlja analizo kremenastih predmetov, od katerih imata vsaka dva para zarez. Ta vidik nakazuje, da so ti kremeni artefakti figurice, ki so namerno izrezljane za prikaz človeškega telesa v obliki, ki prej ni bila dokumentirana, kar dokazuje, da figurice predstavljajo "del razširjenega premika v simbolnem razmišljanju, ki se kaže v širjenju človeške ikonografije v zgodnjem neolitiku. ”

Poleg morfološke analize zarezanih kremenov je bilo še 71 drugih kremenastih artefaktov, vključno z drobci rezila, lopaticami ali kosmiči, ki prikazujejo dva para nasprotnih zarez, podvrženo tudi tehnološki analizi, ki je iskala sledi obrabe, vendar skoraj vsi artefakti niso pokazali nobene uporabe- nositi sledi v zarezah ali na robovih, ki mejijo nanje, «piše ​​v papirju. Poleg tega je samo eno rezilo pokazalo kakršne koli znake obrabe zaradi razseka mesa ali skrivanja na obeh straneh, vendar je do te praktične uporabe prišlo »še preden so bili narejeni zarezi«.

Morfološka analiza odgovarja na vprašanja o neolitskih figuricah

Novi članek predstavlja alternativno razlago za morfologijo artefaktov Kharaysin, najdenih v Jordaniji, in trdi, da so podobni obrisu človeškega telesa. Zgornji par zarez je zožitev vratu, spodnji par pa pas. Ta izrazito "oris v obliki violine" je opazen tudi v dveh figuricah iz pečene gline iz istega obdobja okupacije v Kharaysinu, kar dodatno potrjuje trditev, da so bili ti zarezani kremeni figurice, uporabljene v pogrebnih obredih, ki so del "kulta čaščenja prednikov" ”, Ki je vadil pridobivanje in kuracijo (ter občasno ometenje) lobanj.

Dve glineni človeški figurici, najdeni na dnu 1,6 metra globoke jame v J 105/110 v Kharaysinu. (Slika: arheološka ekipa Kharaysin / Antiquity Publications Ltd )

Ta novi dokument dokumentira novo vrsto zarezanega kremenastega artefakta iz prve polovice 8. tisočletja pr. In čeprav bi lahko te pare zarez uporabili za izdelavo orodij, mnogi od najdenih artefaktov nimajo jasnih funkcionalnih robov in večina ne kaže nobene uporabe.

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Vezanje ohlapnih koncev: za kaj so bile uporabljene neolitske figurice?

Po pisanju tega članka sem se začel boriti s pomanjkanjem podatkov v študiji, ki se nanašajo na posebne cilje starodavnih obredov, v katerih so bili uporabljeni ti predmeti v obliki človeka. Ali so nameravali varovati pokojna telesa, ko so njihove duše potovale v posmrtno življenje, pomiriti boga Sonca ali pa se morda sklicevati na poplave lunine boginje? V iskanju odgovorov sem pisal dr. Juanu Joséju Ibáñezu in postavil jasno vprašanje: Čeprav bo vaš odgovor vedno subjektiven, o čem ste zaradi nove študije razmišljali o ritualni "funkciji" teh artefaktov?

"To je vedno zelo težko vedeti," je bila prva vrstica odgovora profesorjev. Nadalje razlaga, da so bile figurice izdelane s preprosto tehniko in z uporabo povsod prisotnega materiala. Niso jih naredili strokovnjaki, ampak skupni člani skupnosti. Figurice so precej raznolike: nekatere so vitke, druge grbave, majhne ali velike. Zato se zdi, da prikazujejo »posebne pokojnike«, figurice in druga pogrebna človeška ikonografija (na primer modelirane lobanje) pa bi lahko nakazovale, »da so bile prisotne neke vrste prepričanja v obstoj posmrtnega sveta«.

Prispevek "Flint" figurice "z zgodnjega neolitskega najdišča Kharaysin v Jordaniji" avtorja Juana Joséja Ibáñeza in sod. je na voljo od Antiquity Publications Ltd .


10.000 let stare neolitske figurice, odkrite v jordanskih pokopih-zgodovina

Rollefson G. O. Ritual in slovesnost v neolitiku Ain Ghazal (Jordanija). V: Paléorient, 1983, letn. 9, št. 2. str. 29-38.

V NEOLITSKEM AINU GAZALU (JORDAN)

Uvod

Dve sezoni izkopavanj sta bili v Ain Ghazalu na severovzhodnem obrobju glavnega mesta Jordanije Ammana (1). Veliko neolitsko naselje sestoji iz dveh glavnih sestavin: večji del obsega 9,5-10 hektarjev na zahodnem bregu stalne reke Zarqa, čez vodno pot pa je manjši sodobni oddelek v velikosti 1,0-1,5 hektarja. Ain Ghazal, ki ga je po velikosti presegel le Tell Abu Hureyra na severu Sirije (2), obljublja, da bo v tem ključnem obdobju kulturnega razvoja na Levantu posredoval izjemne količine arheoloških podatkov o vidikih spreminjanja družbene organizacije in gospodarstva.

Do danes je bilo v osrednjem delu vasi zaznanih devet večjih gradbenih faz, medtem ko so v pričakovanju rezultatov datiranja C-14 visok delež izstrelkov z značilno retuširanjem Abu Gosha (3) in prisotnost "belih posoda "

(1) Sezoni 1982 in 1983 sta bili podprti s sredstvi Centra za jordanske študije Univerze Yarmouk (Jordanija), Nacionalnega geografskega društva, Oddelka za starine Jordanije, Inštituta za arheologijo Cobb (Državna univerza Mississippi), Wenner-Gren Foundation Univerze v Kansasu in veliko darilo anonimnega donatorja iz Združenih držav. Zahvaljujemo se tudi za dragocene prispevke dr. Davida McCreeryja, direktorja Ameriškega centra za orientalske raziskave (ACOR), gospe Laure Hess, skrbnice ACOR dr. Crystal Bennett, direktorice Britanskega inštituta v Ammanu za Arheologija in zgodovina Gospa Diana Kirkbride-Haelbeck in dr. Svend Helms. (2) MOORE, HILLMAN in LEGGE 1975. (3) LECHEVALLIER 1978: 40-57.

iz neobdelanih kamnov, položenih v blatno malto, so notranje ploskve prekrite z blatom in zaključene s fino laminacijo belega ometa. Tla so izdelana iz visoko kakovostnega ometa, brušenega do sijočega zaključka. Zdi se, da se rdeča oker pogosteje uporablja v poznejših fazah za okrasitev tal in sten kot v zgodnjih (4).

Ohranjanje kosti na tem mestu je odlično, saj je samo v sezoni 1983 proizvedenih pol milijona kosov. Predhodna analiza velikega vzorca živalskega materiala je pokazala zelo širok spekter divjih vrst, medtem ko koza (prevladujoča vrsta) odraža le malo znakov morfoloških sprememb zaradi udomačitve (5). Zdi se, da se izkoriščanje rastlinskih virov razlikuje od večine naselij PPNB na Levantu: vzorci iz letnih časov 1982 in 1983 kažejo, da sta bila grah in leča pomembnejša za lokalno prehrano kot ječmen in pšenica (6).

Čeprav je kost dobro ohranjena, so kostna orodja razmeroma redka in večina nakazuje na določen odnos do šivanja, tkanja in izdelave usnja in izdelkov iz živalske kože. Nasprotno pa je burinov v izobilju (skoraj 40% orodja iz drobljenega kamna), kar kaže na obsežno lesarsko industrijo, za katero še niso odkrili primarnih dokazov. Po drugi strani pa se konice kopja in puščice približujejo le 7 % orodij, kar je precej nižje kot na primer pri Beidhi (7).

Dvaindvajset človeških pokopov je bilo v dveh sezonah odkritih iz posameznih in večkratnih pokopov

(4) prim. ROLLEFSON 1983 ROLLEFSON in SULEIMAN 1983 ROLLEFSON 1984- (5) I. KOHLER-ROLLEFSON, osebna komunikacija. (6) D. McCREERY, osebna komunikacija M. DONALDSON, osebna komunikacija. (7) MORTENSEN 1970: 5-6.


Arheološki obredni predmeti iz obdobja neolitika v Jordaniji Ain Ghazal

Starodavno najdišče & lsquoAin Ghazal v Jordaniji so odkrili šele pred kratkim v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in so ga na žalost poškodovali zaradi gradbenih del. Neolitsko obdobje lahko tukaj razdelimo na štiri ločene faze: srednji predolnjski neolitik B (MPPNB), predžgorski neolitik B (LPPNB), neolitski neolitik pred keramiko C (PPNC) in neolitik januške keramike, ki obsegajo čas okupacije od c. 7250 do 5000 pr.

Obredni predmeti nam lahko veliko povedo o starodavnih kulturah, v kaj ali v koga so verjeli, kako je delovala družba, kako so vplivali na poznejše civilizacije in podobno. So gradniki, ki jih arheologi in antropologi uporabljajo pri oblikovanju zgodovine določenega ljudstva.

V & lsquoAin Ghazal je bila večina najdenih obrednih artefaktov majhne glinene figurice živali in ljudi, žgane in brez ognja. Obstajajo tudi figurice iz mavca, apnenca in krede.

Faza MPPNB je ustvarila večino teh majhnih figuric, pri čemer je človeških modelov največ. Številke & lsquofertility & rsquo so bile najpogostejše z visečimi prsi, popačenimi želodci in značilnimi tetovažami, ki pokrivajo skoraj celo telo.

Zdi se, da imajo figure živali, ki vključujejo vsaj enega sedečega kanida, bolj ritualni namen. Kjer se zdi, da so kozje kosti pogosteje najdene na tem mestu, obstajata le dve figuri, za katere se lahko trdi, da sta ravno ta žival, za katero so znanstveniki predlagali prezir do znanega.

Prevladujoča tema so bile figurice goveda, arheološki dokazi pa so razkrili malo dokazov, da je bilo govedo udomačeno v tem času. Poleg tega najdbe umorjenih goveda kažejo, da so jih uporabljali pri lovski magiji. Ker drugi liki bikov z zvitimi vlaknastimi vrvicami okoli glave kažejo na nekakšne pasove & ndash, lahko te številke kažejo na nekakšen kult & lsquocattle kulta & rsquo v & lsquoAin Ghazal v fazi MPPNB.

Faza PPNC je na žalost razkrila omejeno število figuric. Človeške figure niso tako impresivne kot tiste iz prve faze. Podobno tudi obdobje Yannoukian v zvezi z obrednimi artefakti ponuja zelo malo. Znane številke & lsquocoffee fižol & rsquo pa so učenjakom dale nekaj čudovitega vpogleda v obredno obnašanje tega časa in so skoraj enake drugim številkam plodnosti iz Munhate.

Obredni predmeti iz & lsquoAin Ghazal razkrivajo veliko o obrednem vedenju ljudi, ki so nekoč živeli tukaj, in nenehna izkopavanja nam bodo pomagala razumeti več o človekovi kulturni evoluciji na tem območju.

Rollefson, Gary O., Simmons, Alan H. & amp Kafafi, Zeidan (1992) neolitske kulture na ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordanija, Journal of Field Archaeology, Boston University.


Ali ti 10.000 let stari kremenski predmeti prikazujejo človeške figure?

Nove raziskave kažejo, da so 10.000 let stari kremeni artefakti, najdeni na neolitskem pokopališču v Jordaniji, morda človeške figurice, uporabljene v prazgodovinskih kultnih pogrebnih obredih. Če bo potrjeno, bo več kot 100 predmetov v obliki violine in#8221 eden izmed prvih znanih primerov figurativne umetnosti na Bližnjem vzhodu, poroča Ariel David za Haaretz.

Skupina španskih arheologov je odkrila skrivnostne artefakte na arheološkem najdišču Kharaysin, ki se nahaja približno 25 milj od glavnega mesta države Amman. Plasti, v katerih so našli kremene, segajo v osmo tisočletje pred našim štetjem, pišejo raziskovalci v reviji Antika.

Študija domneva, da so bili kremeni predmeti med pogrebnimi slovesnostmi morda izdelani in zavrženi ”, kar je vključevalo odvzem, manipulacijo in ponovno pokopavanje človeških ostankov. ”

Juan Jose ́ Iba ́n ̃ez, arheolog na Inštitutu za humanistične raziskave Mil á in Fontanals v Španiji, pripoveduje Novi znanstvenikMichael Marshall je s kolegi odkril predlagane figurice med izkopavanjem pokopališča.

Bistveno je, da Iba ́n ̃ez dodaja, da paleta kremenastih rezil, rezil in kosmičev ni podobna orodjem, povezanim z naselbino Kharaysin, ki je bila aktivna med približno 9000 in 7000 pr. Na papirju predmeti nimajo ostrih robov, ki so uporabni za rezanje in ne kažejo znakov obrabe, povezanih z uporabo kot orodje ali orožje.

Večina figuric je iz kremena, arheologi pa so našli tudi več glinenih predmetov. (© Ib á ñez et al / Kharaysin arheološka ekipa / Antiquity Publications Ltd)

Namesto tega si kremeni delijo značilno — čeprav nekoliko abstraktno —obliko: “dva para dvojnih zarez ”, ki tvorijo “ violinsko obliko, ” glede na papir.

Znanstveniki trdijo, da artefakti in zgornji žlebovi#8217 povzročajo zožitev vratu okoli ramen, medtem ko spodnje zareze kažejo na boke. Zdi se, da imajo nekateri kremeni velikosti od 0,4 do 2 palca boke in ramena podobne širine, drugi imajo širše boke, kar jih morda razlikuje od žensk do moških.

“ Nekatere figurice so večje od drugih, nekatere so simetrične, druge asimetrične, nekatere pa se zdijo celo privlačne, ” soavtor študije Ferran Borrell, arheolog iz španskega Vrhovnega sveta za znanstvene raziskave, pove Zenger News ’ Lisa-Maria Goertz. “ Vse kaže, da so prvi kmetje s temi kipci izrazili prepričanja in občutke ter pokazali svojo navezanost na pokojnika. ”

Ko so raziskovalci prvič odkrili drobce, so jih pazljivo identificirali kot človeške figurice. Zdaj pravi Iba ́n ̃ez to Haaretz, “Naša analiza kaže, da je to najbolj logičen zaključek. ”

Kljub temu nekateri znanstveniki, ki niso vključeni v študijo, še vedno niso prepričani v ugotovitve.

Pove Karina Croucher, arheologinja z univerze v Bradfordu v Angliji Živa znanostTom Metcalfe ’s, da so predzgodovinski ljudje morda uporabljali kremenčeve artefakte za “ ohranjanje mrtvih blizu ” in ne kot obliko čaščenja prednikov.

V pogovoru s Novi znanstvenik, April Nowell, arheologinja na kanadski univerzi Victoria, pravi, da jo hipoteza ekipe zanima, vendar ugotavlja, da so ljudje zelo dobri pri gledanju obrazov v naravnih objektih. ”

Dodaja, “ Če bi vam kdo pokazal tisto fotografijo ‘figuracij ’, ne da bi poznal temo prispevka, bi najverjetneje rekli, da je to fotografija kamnitega orodja. ”

Alan Simmons, arheolog z univerze v Nevadi, pripoveduje Živa znanost da razlaga kremenčevih kosov, ki predstavljajo človeško podobo, ni nerazumna ”, vendar poudarja, da je “navod, da so bile te ‘figurave ’ uporabljene za spomin na pokojne posameznike, odprt za druge interpretacije. ”

Teoretizira, da so bili kremeni morda žetoni, igralni predmeti ali talismani, zaključuje Simmons “ Ni dvoma, da to odkritje dodaja globino kompleksnosti neolitskega življenja. ”


Vsebina

Po kronologiji ASPRO se je neolitik začel na Levantu okoli 10.200 pr. Natufijsko obdobje ali "protoneolitik" je trajalo od 12.500 do 9.500 pr. Ker so Natufijci v svoji prehrani postali odvisni od divjih žit in se je med njimi začel sedeči način življenja, naj bi podnebne spremembe, povezane z mlajšimi sušicami (okoli 10.000 pr. N. Št.) Prisilile ljudi k razvoju kmetovanja.

Do leta 10.200–8.800 pr. Mezopotamija je kraj prvih neolitske revolucije od približno 10.000 let pred našim štetjem.

Zgodnje neolitsko kmetovanje je bilo omejeno na ozek nabor rastlin, tako divjih kot udomačenih, ki so vključevali pšenico lipa, proso in piro ter rejo psov, ovac in koz. Do približno 6900–6400 pr. [b]

Vsi ti kulturni elementi, značilni za neolitik, se niso pojavljali povsod v istem vrstnem redu: prve kmečke družbe na Bližnjem vzhodu niso uporabljale lončenine. V drugih delih sveta, na primer v Afriki, Južni Aziji in jugovzhodni Aziji, so neodvisni dogodki udomačitve privedli do lastnih regionalno značilnih neolitskih kultur, ki so nastale popolnoma neodvisno od tistih v Evropi in jugozahodni Aziji. Zgodnje japonske družbe in druge vzhodnoazijske kulture so uporabljale keramiko prej razvoj kmetijstva. [4] [5]

Jugozahodna Azija

Na Bližnjem vzhodu so se kulture, opredeljene kot neolitik, začele pojavljati v 10. tisočletju pr. [6] Zgodnji razvoj se je zgodil na Levantu (npr. Neolitik pred lončarstvom A in neolitik pred lončarstvo B) in se od tam razširil proti vzhodu in zahodu. Neolitske kulture so izpričane tudi v jugovzhodni Anatoliji in severni Mezopotamiji okoli leta 8000 pr. [ potreben citat ]

Prazgodovinsko najdišče Beifudi v bližini Yixiana v provinci Hebei na Kitajskem vsebuje relikvije kulture, ki je sočasna s kulturami Cishan in Xinglongwa iz obdobja okoli 6000–5000 pr. . Skupna izkopana površina je več kot 1.200 kvadratnih metrov (1.000 m 2 0,10 ha), zbiranje neolitskih najdb na najdišču pa obsega dve fazi. [7]

Neolitik pred keramiko A

Obdobje neolitika 1 (PPNA) se je na Levantu začelo približno 10.000 let pred našim štetjem. [6] Za začetek obdobja se lahko šteje tempeljsko območje na jugovzhodu Turčije v Göbekli Tepeju, datirano okoli leta 9500 pr. To mesto so razvila nomadska plemena lovcev in nabiralcev, kar dokazuje pomanjkanje stalnih stanovanj v bližini in je morda najstarejši znani kraj čaščenja, ki ga je naredil človek. [11] Vsaj sedem kamnitih krogov, ki pokrivajo 25 hektarjev (10 ha), vsebuje apnenčaste stebre, izklesane z živalmi, žuželkami in pticami. Kamnito orodje je morda uporabljalo kar sto ljudi za ustvarjanje stebrov, ki so lahko podpirali strehe. Druga zgodnja najdišča PPNA iz obdobja okoli 9500–9000 pr. Začetek neolitika 1 se do neke mere prekriva s tahunskim in težkim neolitskim obdobjem. [ potreben citat ]

Glavni napredek neolitika 1 je bilo pravo kmetovanje. V natufijskih kulturah v praneolitskem obdobju so pobirali divja žita in morda je prišlo do zgodnje selekcije semena in ponovnega sejanja. Zrno so zmleli v moko. Emmer pšenico so udomačili, živali pa pastili in udomačili (živinoreja in selektivna reja). [ potreben citat ]

Leta 2006 so v hiši v Jerihi iz leta 9400 pr. Fige so mutirane sorte, ki jih žuželke ne morejo oprašiti, zato se drevesa lahko razmnožujejo le iz potaknjencev. Ti dokazi kažejo, da so bile fige prvi pridelani pridelek in označujejo izum tehnologije kmetovanja. To se je zgodilo stoletja pred prvo pridelavo žita. [12]

Naselja so postala trajnejša, s krožnimi hišami, podobno kot natufijske, z enoposteljnimi sobami. Vendar so bile te hiše prvič narejene iz opeke. Naselje je imelo okoliško kamnito obzidje in morda kamniti stolp (kot v Jerihi). Zid je služil kot zaščita pred bližnjimi skupinami, kot zaščita pred poplavami ali za zaščito živali. Nekatera ohišja predlagajo tudi skladiščenje žita in mesa. [13]

Neolitik pred keramiko B

Neolitik 2 (PPNB) se je začel po letu 8800 pr.n.št.v skladu s kronologijo ASPRO na Levantu (Jerihon, Zahodni breg). [6] Tako kot pri datumih PPNA obstajata dve različici iz zgoraj navedenih laboratorijev. Ta terminološki sistem pa ni primeren za jugovzhodno Anatolijo in naselja srednje porečja Anatolije. [ potreben citat ] Na obrobju Ammana v Jordaniji so našli naselje s 3000 prebivalci. Šteje se za eno največjih prazgodovinskih naselij na Bližnjem vzhodu, imenovano 'Ain Ghazal', vendar je bilo stalno naseljeno od približno 7250 pr. [14]

Naselja imajo pravokotne hiše iz opeke iz blata, kjer je družina živela skupaj v enojnih ali več sobah. Pogrebne ugotovitve kažejo na kult prednikov, kjer so ljudje ohranjali lobanje mrtvih, ki so bile ometane z blatom, da bi naredile obrazne poteze. Preostanek trupla bi lahko pustili zunaj naselja, da bi propadel, dokler niso ostale le kosti, nato pa kosti zakopali v naselju pod tlemi ali med hišami. [ potreben citat ]

Neolitik pred keramiko C

Delo na lokaciji 'Ain Ghazal v Jordaniji je pokazalo poznejše neolitsko obdobje pred lončarstva. Juris Zarins je predlagal, da se je v obdobju od podnebne krize leta 6200 pr.n.št. razvil krožno arabski nomadski pastoralni kompleks, deloma zaradi vse večjega poudarka v kulturah PPNB na udomačenih živalih in zlitja s harifijskimi lovci nabiralci na jugu Levanta, s povezanimi povezavami s kulturami Fayyuma in vzhodne egiptovske puščave. Kulture, ki izvajajo ta način življenja, so se razširile ob obali Rdečega morja in se iz Sirije preselile proti vzhodu v južni Irak. [15]

Pozni neolitik

Pozni neolitik se je začel okoli 6.400 pred našim štetjem v Plodnem polmesecu. [6] Takrat so se pojavile značilne kulture s keramiko, kot so halafijska (Turčija, Sirija, Severna Mezopotamija) in Ubaid (južna Mezopotamija). To obdobje so nadalje razdelili na PNA (Lončarski neolitik A) in PNB (Lončarski neolitik B) na nekaterih mestih. [16]

Kalkolitsko (kamnito-bronasto) obdobje se je začelo okoli 4500 pr.n.št., nato se je bronasta doba začela okoli 3500 pr. [ potreben citat ]

Plodni polmesec

Približno 10.000 pr. [6] Okoli 10.700–9400 pred našim štetjem je bilo ustanovljeno naselje v Tell Qaramelu, 16 milj (16 km) severno od Alepa. Naselje je vključevalo dva templja iz leta 9650 pr. [17] Okoli leta 9000 pr. Obkrožen je bil s kamnitim zidom, morda je imel do 2000–3000 prebivalcev in je vseboval ogromen kamniti stolp. [18] Okoli leta 6400 pred našim štetjem se je halafska kultura pojavila v Siriji in Severni Mezopotamiji.

Leta 1981 je skupina raziskovalcev iz Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, vključno z Jacquesom Cauvinom in Oliverjem Aurencheom, razdelila kronologijo Bližnjega vzhoda v deset obdobij (0 do 9) na podlagi družbenih, ekonomskih in kulturnih značilnosti. [19] Leta 2002 sta Danielle Stordeur in Frédéric Abbès ta sistem razvila z delitvijo na pet obdobij.

    med 12.000 in 10.200 pr. n. št., med 10.200 in 8800 pr.
  1. Zgodnja PPNB (PPNB starejši) med 8800 in 7600 pr. n. št., srednja PPNB (PPNB moyen) med 7600 in 6900 pr.
  2. Pozno PPNB (PPNB recent) med 7500 in 7000 pr.
  3. Prehodna stopnja PPNB (včasih imenovana tudi PPNC) (PPNB finale), v katerem se med 6900 in 6400 pr. [20]

Razvili so tudi idejo o prehodni stopnji med PPNA in PPNB med 8800 in 8600 pr. N. Št. Na mestih, kot sta Jerf el Ahmar in Tell Aswad. [21]

Južna Mezopotamija

Aluvialne ravnice (Sumer/Elam). Zaradi nizkih padavin so potrebni namakalni sistemi. Ubaidska kultura od 6.900 pr. [ potreben citat ]

Severna afrika

Udomačitev ovac in koz je v Egipt prišla z Bližnjega vzhoda verjetno že leta 6000 pr. [22] [23] [24] Graeme Barker navaja: "Prvi nesporni dokazi o domačih rastlinah in živalih v dolini Nila so šele v zgodnjem petem tisočletju pred našim štetjem v severnem Egiptu in tisoč let kasneje južno, v obeh primerih kot del strategij, ki so se še vedno močno opirale na ribolov, lov in nabiranje divjih rastlin "in nakazuje, da do teh sprememb v preživljanju niso prišli kmetje, ki so se preselili z Bližnjega vzhoda, ampak so bili avtohtoni razvoj, pri čemer so bila žita avtohtona ali pridobljena z izmenjavo. [25] Drugi znanstveniki trdijo, da je bil glavni vzrok za kmetijstvo in udomačene živali (pa tudi arhitekturo iz opeke iz blata in druge neolitske kulturne značilnosti) v Egiptu z Bližnjega vzhoda. [26] [27] [28]

Podsaharska Afrika

The Pastoralni neolitik se nanaša na obdobje v afriški prazgodovini, ki označuje začetek proizvodnje hrane na celini po poznejši kameni dobi. V nasprotju z neolitikom v drugih delih sveta, kjer so se razvijale kmečke družbe, je bila prva oblika afriške pridelave hrane mobilno pašništvo, [29] [30] ali načini življenja, osredotočeni na pastirstvo in upravljanje z živino. Izraz "pastoralni neolitik" arheologi najpogosteje uporabljajo za opis zgodnjih pastoralističnih obdobij v Sahari [31], pa tudi v vzhodni Afriki. [32]

The Savanna pastoralni neolitik ali SPN (prej znan kot Kultura kamnitih posod) je zbirka starodavnih družb, ki so se pojavile v Rift Valley v vzhodni Afriki in okolici v časovnem obdobju, znanem kot pastoralni neolitik. Bili so pastirji, ki so govorili južnokušitsko, in so svoje mrtve pokopavali v kamnitih prostorih, medtem ko so za njihovo orodje značilne kamnite sklede, pest, žrvnji in lončeni lonci. [33] Skozi arheologijo, zgodovinsko jezikoslovje in arheogenetiko so jih običajno identificirali s prvimi naseljenci, ki govorijo afroazijsko. Arheološko datiranje kosti živine in grobišč je vzpostavilo tudi kulturni kompleks kot najzgodnejše središče pastoralizma in kamnite gradnje v regiji. [ potreben citat ]

Evropa

V jugovzhodni Evropi so se agrarne družbe prvič pojavile v 7. tisočletju pr. [34] [35] V večini zahodne Evrope je sledilo naslednjih dva tisoč let, v nekaterih delih severozahodne Evrope pa je to veliko pozneje, ki traja slabih 3000 let od c. 4500 pr. N. Št. - 1700 pr.

Antropomorfne figurice so bile najdene na Balkanu od leta 6000 pred našim štetjem [36], v Srednji Evropi pa okoli leta 5800 pred našim štetjem (La Hoguette). Med najzgodnejšimi kulturnimi kompleksi tega območja je kultura Sesklo v Tesaliji, ki se je pozneje razširila na Balkanu in tako nastala Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik in Vinča. S kombinacijo kulturne razširjenosti in selitve ljudstev se je neolitska tradicija razširila na zahod in sever in dosegla severozahodno Evropo okoli 4500 pr. Vinčanska kultura je morda ustvarila najzgodnejši sistem pisanja, znamenja Vinča, čeprav arheolog Shan Winn meni, da so najverjetneje predstavljali piktograme in ideograme namesto resnično razvite oblike pisanja. [37]

Kukutensko-tripilska kultura je od 5300 do 2300 pr. N. Št. Zgradila ogromna naselja v Romuniji, Moldaviji in Ukrajini. Megalitski tempeljski kompleksi Ġgantija na sredozemskem otoku Gozo (v malteškem arhipelagu) in Mnajdra (Malta) so znani po svojih velikanskih neolitskih strukturah, od katerih so najstarejše okoli 3600 pr. Hipogej v mestu Ħal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, je podzemna struktura, izkopana okoli leta 2500 pred našim štetjem, prvotno svetišče, postala je nekropola, edini prazgodovinski podzemni tempelj na svetu in kaže stopnjo umetnosti v kamnitih skulpturah, edinstvenih v prazgodovini do malteški otoki. Po 2500 pr. N. Št. So bili ti otoki več desetletij izseljeni, dokler ni prišel nov priliv priseljencev iz bronaste dobe, kulture, ki je kremirala svoje mrtve in na Malto uvedla manjše megalitske strukture, imenovane dolmeni. [38] V večini primerov so tu majhne komore s pokrovom iz velike plošče, postavljene na pokončne kamne. Trdijo, da pripadajo populaciji, ki je drugačna od tiste, ki je gradila prejšnje megalitske templje. Domneva se, da je prebivalstvo prišlo s Sicilije zaradi podobnosti malteških dolmenov z nekaterimi manjšimi gradnjami. [39]

Južne in vzhodne Azije

Naseljeno življenje, ki zajema prehod iz krmljenja v kmetovanje in pašništvo, se je začelo v južni Aziji v regiji Beludžistan v Pakistanu, okoli 7.000 pr. [40] [41] [42] At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle. [43] In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Narava that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of teeth in vivo (using bow drills and flint tips) was found in Mehrgarh. [44]

In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ash mounds [ potrebno pojasnilo ] from 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu. [45]

In East Asia, the earliest sites include the Nanzhuangtou culture around 9500–9000 BC, [46] Pengtoushan culture around 7500–6100 BC, and Peiligang culture around 7000–5000 BC.

The 'Neolithic' (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Polished stone adze and axes are used in the present day (as of 2008 [update] ) in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. This is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail. [ potreben citat ]

In 2012, news was released about a new farming site discovered in Munam-ri, Goseong, Gangwon Province, South Korea, which may be the earliest farmland known to date in east Asia. [47] "No remains of an agricultural field from the Neolithic period have been found in any East Asian country before, the institute said, adding that the discovery reveals that the history of agricultural cultivation at least began during the period on the Korean Peninsula". The farm was dated between 3600 and 3000 BC. Pottery, stone projectile points, and possible houses were also found. "In 2002, researchers discovered prehistoric earthenware, jade earrings, among other items in the area". The research team will perform accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating to retrieve a more precise date for the site. [48]

Ameriki

In Mesoamerica, a similar set of events (i.e., crop domestication and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as early as 11,000–10,000 BC. These cultures are usually not referred to as belonging to the Neolithic in America different terms are used such as Formative stage instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era instead of Early Neolithic, and Paleo-Indian for the preceding period. [49]

The Formative stage is equivalent to the Neolithic Revolution period in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the southwestern United States it occurred from 500 to 1200 AD when there was a dramatic increase in population and development of large villages supported by agriculture based on dryland farming of maize, and later, beans, squash, and domesticated turkeys. During this period the bow and arrow and ceramic pottery were also introduced. [50] In later periods cities of considerable size developed, and some metallurgy by 700 BC. [51]

Avstralija

Australia, in contrast to New Guinea, has generally been held not to have had a Neolithic period, with a hunter-gatherer lifestyle continuing until the arrival of Europeans. This view can be challenged in terms of the definition of agriculture, but "Neolithic" remains a rarely used and not very useful concept in discussing Australian prehistory. [52]


10,000-Year-Old Figurines Discovered in Jordan (Video)

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Povezani članki

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"We do not know yet if the buried ones are relatives, or how they were singled out to be buried here," said Dr. Moritz Kinzel, excavation leader and researcher from the Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. "It also seems that the dead bodies were in various stages of decay when they were buried at Shkrat Msaied. This could be an indicator that the people had not necessarily died in the settlement and were just brought here to be buried, to become part of the community.”

So far skeletal remains of more than 70 people have been unearthed at Shkrat Msaied, a Neolithic site in a valley just north of Petra.

“I believe the remains had been completely or almost completely skeletonized when they were placed in the graves," said physical anthropologist Marie Louise Jørkov from the University of Copenhagen to Haaretz, noting that otherwise, the smell of the decay inside the homes would have been horrendous.

One corollary of the method was that it allowed several people to be buried in the same coffin, she added.

At Shkārat Msaied, multiple bodies would be buried together, but in discrete parts. Here we see skulls placed together in a single stone coffin. Moritz Kinsel, Shkārat Msaied Neolithic Project, University of Copenhagen

Dead among the living

The human bones were for the most part separated – for instance, skulls together, leg bones together and so on. These collections were placed in shafts that were located inside private homes. Burying the dead inside or by the house suggests they wanted to be close to their dead, or let the spirits of the dead "share" in their everyday life, Jørkov says.

However, it seems that by separating the body parts, the community wanted to ensure the dead could not return, as an individual or some kind of zombie, Kinzel adds.

Even after interment in coffins, the dead were apparently not left in peace in Shkarat Msaied. “Many of them have been moved and reburied in a messier 'mass grave'," said Kinzel. "It seems that the funeral took place through several stages. Initially, the bones were sorted, then they were moved from one coffin to another, where they were no longer put in order. In the last phase, the bones were thrown into a form of collective waste burial. But the tomb is still inside the house."

The ancients who lived in Shkārat Msaied 9,000 years ago built large round stone houses, 3 to 8 meters in diamater - inside which they buried their dead. Moritz Kinsel, Shkārat Msaied Neolithic Project, University of Copenhagen

Earliest staircases

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About the time these people lived, some 9,000 years ago, their society was undergoing upheaval. From being primarily hunter-gatherers living a nomadic life, they began to settle down and farm. “Initial bone studies shows evidence of hard physical work - marked muscle attachments and arthritis - in the adults and nutritional stress among the children,” says Jørkov.

The archaeologists digging found a lot of stone tools at Shkrat Msaied, such as flint knives and rock drills, and also bone tools such as needles and spatulas.

While there is some evidence of early domestication of plants and sheep, she would not categorically say they found practices of first farmers in general but the behavior of the people clearly indicate memory and group identity building, Kinzel says.

According to Kinzel, the very architecture of Shkrat Msaied is also interesting. The people lived in round stone houses, of which 26 have been excavated so far, ranging from about three to eight meters in diameter. Some had been dug into the ground inside, so that the floor is about one meter below the surface.

One of the houses has the earliest example of stairs ever found, says Kinzel. "There are two staircases in the house, one that leads down into the room, and one that leads upward, probably up to the roof," he says.

Excavating the 9,000-year old graves at Shkārat Msaied,where the deceased were not allowed to rest in peace, but were buried more than once. Moritz Kinsel, Shkārat Msaied Neolithic Project, University of Copenhagen

Roofdwellers and mysterious powder

The roof seems in general to have played an important role for the ancient residents of Shkrat Msaied. Kinzel thinks they probably stayed on the roof much of their time, perhaps for the light – to see what they were doing, or perhaps to avoid the unpleasant smoke from the fireplace inside the house. "We rarely find tools or other objects on the floor of the houses, so we believe that they mainly lived on the roof of the houses," he explains.

In contrast to much of the west, the Levantine climate is relatively pleasant, enabling people to work outside. "It's a bit like today's Bedouin, who spend more time outside than inside. It is quite a modern thing that we always want to be inside," says Kinzel.

Another intriguing discovery recurring in all the houses is a ring-shaped basin containing a white powder. The powder has mystified scientists, who cannot suggest a practical use for it. It may have been related to a cultic or ritual behavior.

"We do not know what the purpose was, but the small pool with the powder is in each house. The white powder is probably burnt limestone, but it's still a bit unclear to us. We have had problems interpreting the analysis," Kinzel admits.

The dead of Shkārat Msaied were buried in shafts inside the home. Moritz Kinsel, Shkārat Msaied Neolithic Project, University of Copenhagen

Rituals to avert rage?

Overall the residents of Shkrat Msaied 9,000 years ago seem to have had a strong community life surrounding rituals, something the collective burials also point to.

Transiting from hunting-gathering to permanent settlements meant they were adopting village lives of mutual proximity. "We generally regard rituals to be a powerful tool for keeping order and control groups of people, because it gives them a common understanding that could be used to avoid conflicts," says Kinzel.

Another site in Jordan where man was evidently transiting from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture is Shubayqa, where Danish archaeologists are also involved. In eastern Jordan, cabins dating back 20,000 years - some of the oldest man-made buildings scientists know of – are being studied.

"The exciting thing is that even though several excavation sites are relatively close to each other, we still find large individual differences. Even places where there are only six kilometers between country towns, there is still a very individual approach to how the residents built their houses and used the various resources," says Kinzel. "It shows that the individual settlements have been quite independent of each other, but we can also see that they must have worked together and exchanged goods and raw materials."

“The findings at Shkarat Msaied are unique. The density of burials is comparable with the famous skull building at Cayönü in Upper Mesopotamia. The findings allow us to explore the relationship between humans, animals and the built environment on a kind of micro scale. This will for sure give a better understanding of the Neolithic behavior as such”, concludes Kinzel.

This year's excavations of Shkrat Msaied are being sponsored by the Palestine Foundation and the Danish Institute in Damascus.


Neolithic flint tools found in Jordan are ‘earliest human figures’

Archaeologists studying a cache of more than 100 prehistoric flint objects found in Jordan have concluded they are figurines of humans rather than tools as originally thought.

The Spanish researchers said that the 10,000 year-old flints found at Kharaysin, near Amman, have no sign of the wear and tear that would be expected if they were used as scrapers or cutting tools.


10,000-Year-Old Neolithic Figurines Discovered in Jordan Burials - History

Kafafi Zeidan. The Yarmoukians in Jordan.. In: Paléorient, 1993, vol. 19, n°1. pp. 101-114.

THE YARMOUKIANS IN JORDAN

Uvod

The term "Yarmoukian" was first adopted by M. Stekelis who excavated the site of Sha'ar HaGolan, located on the Yarmouk River. The archaeological material that he collected consisted of ceramic vessels (some incised with "herring bone chevrons" and others that were incised and painted), incised pebble figurines, clay figurines with "coffee-bean" eyes and a flint industry consisting mainly of deeply denticulated sickle-blades, small squamous retouched arrow-heads, burins, chisels and pointed tools. The inhabitants of Sha'ar HaGolan dwelt in "pit-dwellings" dug into the earth (1). The excavator first dated the excavated material to ca. 7,000 B.C. (2) and then attributed it to the Pottery Neolithic A Period of Jericho (3). However the term "Yarmoukian" was later adopted by many other scholars and became popular during the past two decades after similar archaeological material had been found in both Jordan and Palestine.

In Jordan, pottery sherds decorated with incised herring-bone chevrons were found during surveys at several sites (e.g. Tell el -Arba'in, ed-Debab and Khirbet Falah in the Jordan Valley (4), es-Salihi on the mountainous ranges, between the towns of Sweileh and Jerash (5) and were thought to belong to a Pottery Neolithic tradition (6).

It is at Jebel Abu Thawwab that, for the first time in 1984 in Jordan, were excavated "Yarmoukian" pottery vessels and flint artefacts similar

(1) STEKELIS, 1950-51, 1972: 3. (2) STEKELIS, 1950-51 : 19. (3) STEKELIS, 1972 : 43. (4) KAFAFI, 1982 : 230. (5) KIRKBRIDE, 1959 : 53. (6) KIRKBRIDE, 1959.

to those described by Stekelis at Sha'ar HaGolan (7) In the following years, similar assemblages were found at other sites in Jordan : at 'Ain Rahub, 'Ain Ghazal and Wadi Shueib.

In this presentation of the "Yarmoukian" sites in Jordan we will only deal with those that have been excavated (fig. 1). They are presented according to their geographical distribution, from North to South.

Sites and setting

The site of 'Ain Rahub (N 224 125 and E 238 000 "Palestine grid" and N 32 35 40 and E 35 55 50) is located in the northern Jordanian highlands at 465 m above sea-level, 13 km northeast of the city of Irbid near a perennial spring known as 'Ain Rahub, on the lowest terrace of the western bank of Wadi er-Rahub. It pertains to the Mediterranean climatic zone with wet winters and dry summers today the mean annual rainfall for the area is about 400 mm whilst the winter rainfall ranges between ca. 200-250 mm (8). From the anthracological remains found in the "Yarmoukian deposits" it seems that around the site was some oak (Quercus ithaburensis) and pistachia (Pistacia atlantica) wood land which has since this time been replaced as noticed by R. Neef by (over)grazed and cultivated land. None of the wild plants found in the Yarmoukian levels could be identified to species level and give any information on the natural vegetation contemporaneous of


History-Changing 10,000-Year-Old City Discovered in Israel

Excavation site. Image Credit: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority.

A vast prehistoric settlement, one of the largest of its kind in the region, has been discovered during archaeological excavations carried out as a preliminary to the construction of a road near modern Motza, a neighborhood on the western edge of Jerusalem, Israel.

The ancient city is being excavated ahead of a highway construction five kilometers from Jerusalem, the Times of Israel reported.

The archeological site was revealed with funding from Israel’s National Transport Infrastructure Company, Netivei.

According to Dr. Hamoudi Khalaily and Dr. Jacob Vardi, excavation directors of Motza on behalf of the Antiquities Authority, “this is the first time a settlement of this magnitude has been discovered in Israel. At least 2,000 to 3,000 residents lived here, which in terms of magnitude, resembles a city today.”

Excavations on the site have revealed a number of large buildings, intricate tools, thousands of weapons including arrowheads, axes, sickles blades as well as knives.

Image Credit: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority.

The scientists also discovered a number of tools that were used for farming, which indicates a highly developed agricultural society that grew, among other things, wheat, barley, and a variety of beans.

The number of items recovered o the site proves that the ancient city was home to a developed society.

The discovery forces us to rethink the history of habitation in the region.

Previously, it was believed that this area was void of cities and settlements and that only the other bank of the Jordan River was home to large and complex sites.

Despite the fact that we don’t know the original name of this ancient city which happens to predate both the Pyramids and Stonehenge, archeological excavations which have been underway for 18 months, have already revealed evidence of a massive city which at its peak covered more than 100 acres of land.

Image Credit: Yaniv Berman, Israel Antiquities Authority.

Reports from Israel’s Antiquity authority revealed that this is the first time such a settlement, dating back to the Neolithic, was discovered in the region.

“It’s a game-changer, a site that will drastically shift what we know about the Neolithic era.”

“So far, it was believed that the Judea area was empty and that sites of that size existed only on the other bank of the Jordan river, or in the Northern Levant,” Jacob Vardi, co-director of the excavations at Motza revealed to the Times of Israel.

“Instead of an uninhabited area from that period, we have found a complex site, where varied economic means of subsistence existed, and all this, only several dozens of centimeters below the surface,” Vardi added.

The city’s beginning was most likely small and slow, around 10.500 years ago. But over a period of 1,500 years that followed, the city grew exponentially, becoming an important settlement in the region.

Archeologists maintain that the ancient city is “evidence of the settlement’s advanced level of planning.”

The complexity of the city was confirmed when archeologists discovered a number of burials in the city. According to reports, in the middlemost layer dating to 10,000 years ago, a tomb was discovered from around 6,000 B.C.

“In this tomb are two individuals — warriors — who were buried together with a dagger and a spearhead,” archaeologist Lauren Davis said.

Archeologists are working to preserve the site as best as they can, and every structure is going to be documented using 3D modeling.

“When we finish the excavation here,” said Vardi, “we will be able to continue to research the site in the laboratory,” adding that this is an unprecedented use of technology.”


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