Zid

Zid


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Angleška beseda "zid" izhaja iz latinščine, vallus pomeni "kol" ali "steber" in označuje palico iz lesa in zemljo, ki je tvorila zunanji rob utrdbe. Palisade so bile v uporabi že zgodaj, med drugim jih omenjata Homer v 8. stoletju pred našim štetjem, kasneje pa še grški zgodovinar Polibij (okoli 200-118 pr. N. Št.) In kitajski zgodovinar Sima Qian (145-86 pr. N. Št.). Stene so bile tradicionalno zgrajene za obrambo, zasebnost in za zaščito prebivalcev določene regije pred vplivom ali zaznano nevarnostjo tujcev.

Stene različnih kultur so služile istemu primarnemu namenu, vendar so bile zgrajene na različne načine z uporabo različnih materialov, odvisno od kulture in časovnega obdobja. Stene v starodavni Mezopotamiji so bile kot na podeželju starega Egipta posušene z blatom opečene na soncu. Stene okoli svetih ali obrednih mest v Egiptu so bile sčasoma iz kamna. Delo v kamnu so izvajali tudi Grki in slavni Rimljani, kar najbolje ponazarja Hadrijanov zid na današnji Škotski, ki je bil zgrajen leta 122 n. Od časa rimskega cesarstva naprej je bil kamen material izbire pri zidanju skozi moderno dobo.

Starodavni zidovi Mezopotamije

Najstarejše obzidje, ki je bilo najdeno doslej, je tisto iz templja Gobekli Tepe v Urfi na jugovzhodu Turčije, ki sega v čas pred 11.500 leti. Mestno obzidje, ki je postalo običajno zaradi obrambe, so prvič opazili okoli mesta Jericho (danes na Zahodnem bregu) okoli 10. stoletja pr.n.št. in sumerskega mesta Uruk, ki je bilo ustanovljeno nekoliko kasneje (čeprav sta obe mesti trdili, da čast "prvega mesta na svetu"). Stene Uruka je menda zgradil veliki kralj Gilgameš, na katerem je zapisal svoja junaška dejanja, ki so bila osnova za kasnejšo epopejo, po kateri je najbolj znan.

Okoli mest po Mezopotamiji so se začeli dvigovati zidovi kmalu po začetku urbanizacije v regiji c. 4500 pr.

Okoli mest po Mezopotamiji so se kmalu po začetku urbanizacije v regiji okoli 4500 pr. Mestno obzidje je bilo zgrajeno tako, da vključuje vrata in stražne stolpe ter običajno jarek, ki teče po zunanjem obodu obzidja, ki ga je mogoče napolniti z vodo. Kralj Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 pr. N. Št.) Je obkrožil svoje mesto Babilon z bolj impresivnimi zidovi, kot jih običajno vidimo kmalu po prevzemu prestola leta 1792 pr. Nebukadnezar II.

Nebukadnezar II (r. 605-562 pr. N. Št.) Je zgradil okoli Babilona tri stene na višini štirideset čevljev in tako široke na vrhu, da so se okoli njih lahko vozili vozovi. Nekateri so trdili, da so vrata Ištar v steni Babilona Nebukadnezarja II. Večja od vseh naštetih čudes starodavnega sveta. Grški zgodovinar Herodot je trdil, da "Babilon v čudu presega vsako mesto v znanem svetu", in posebej pohvalil stene, za katere je dejal, da so dolge 90 kilometrov, debele 24 metrov in 97 metrov (320 čevljev) visoko. Čeprav velja splošno prepričanje, da je Herodot pretiraval z babilonsko veličino, so tudi drugi starodavni pisci opazili veličastnost zidov.

Obrambni zidovi

Menijo, da je prvo steno, ki ni bila zgrajena okoli mesta, postavil sumerski kralj Šulgi iz Ura (r. 2029-1982 pr. N. Št.) V c. 2038. Shulgijevo obzidje je bilo dolgo 250 kilometrov in je bilo zgrajeno med rekama Tigris in Evfrat, da bi preprečilo napadom Amorejcev iz sumerskih dežel. Ta zid je bil nenavaden, ker ni obdajal mesta, temveč je označeval ozemeljsko, nacionalno (in ne zasebno) mejo in je bil kot tak prvi te vrste.

Ljubezen do zgodovine?

Prijavite se na naše brezplačne tedenske e -novice!

Shulgijev sin, Shu-Sin, vnuk in pravnuk so vsi poskušali ohraniti to steno, a ker ni bila zasidrana na obeh koncih, se je izkazalo za neučinkovito (lahko bi šli vojsko okoli obeh strani stene ) in so ga nazadnje prebili Elamiti c. 1750 pr. N. Št., Kar je povzročilo padec Ura in regije Sumer. Druga tovrstna stena, ki še vedno obstaja, je Gorganski veliki zid (zaradi rdeče barve opek znan kot "rdeča kača") v sodobnem Iranu. Zgradilo ga je Partsko cesarstvo (247 pr. N. Št.-224 n. Št.), Obnovili in obnovili pa so ga sasanijski Perzijci v 5. ali 6. stoletju n. Št., Stena je dolga 195 kilometrov in obsega čez trideset utrdb vzdolž svoje črte.

Zid je bil zgrajen tako kot obrambni konstrukt kot strateško sredstvo za opazovanje sovražnikovega razmeščanja. Bil je veliko učinkovitejši od Shulgijeve stene in domneva se, da so se Sasanijski Perzijci naučili lekcije o Shulgijevem zidu in se sami izboljšali. Gorgonski zid je več kot 1.000 let starejši, čeprav precej manj znan od Kitajskega zidu, ki se je, čeprav se je začel v času vladavine Shi Huangtija (vladal 221-210 pr. N. Št.), Dokončal v sedanjem stanju šele v času dinastija Ming (1368-1644 n. št.). Tako kot Veliki gorgonski zid je bil tudi Kitajski zid zidan kot samostojna zgradba za obrambo regije, tako kot je bil Anastazijski zid (znan tudi kot Dolgi zidovi Trakije) Bizantinskega cesarstva (začetek okoli 469. n. Št. ), ki se nahaja v sodobni Turčiji.

Stene v domovih in mestih

Neolitska vasica Banpo na Kitajskem (naseljena okoli 4500-3750 pr. N. Št.) Je bila sestavljena iz kamnitih stenskih krožnih hiš, podprtih z lesom s slamnato streho, medtem ko je bila vas Skara Brae (v Orkneyju na Škotskem) zgrajena leta 3100 pred našim štetjem s stenami in hišami. iz kamna za zaščito ljudi pred elementi in zagotavljanje zasebnosti. Zanimivo je, da sta si obe vasi gradbeno podobni. Osnovna oblika teh vasi in uporaba obzidja se nadaljuje na enak način v drugih kulturah.

V starem Egiptu je imela večina zasebnih hiš obzidanih dvorišč, ki so pomagala odvrniti roparje ali preprosto nezaželene in nepovabljene sosede (zvitki papirusa in napisi na grobnicah pripovedujejo, da bi si človek v starih časih lahko bil tako neznosno nadležen, kot je zdaj). Vsako mesto v starem Egiptu je bilo obzidano in vsaka velika palača je imela izdelane poslikane stene za obrambo, pa tudi za okras.

Ta isti gradbeni vzorec je veljal v stari Grčiji, kjer so prebivalci Aten zgradili majhne okrasne stene okoli svojih dvorišč in dvorišč. Atenjani so svoje mesto obdali tudi z debelimi zidovi, ki so trajali do konca peloponeskih vojn s Sparto, ko so jih zmagoviti Špartanci dali podrti. V Atenah so bili pomembni tudi dolgi zidovi, ki sta bili dve vzporedni kamniti zgradbi, ki sta potekali od Akropole navzdol do pristanišča Pirej in varovali središče mesta.

Obzidje slavnega mesta Troy iz Homerjevega Iliada jih je arheolog Heinrich Schliemann odkril med izkopavanji med letoma 1871-1874 n.št. in je služil temu obrambnemu namenu. Utrdbe kitajskega mesta Xi'an (zgrajeno okoli 194. pr. N. Št.) So bile zgrajene tudi za obrambo in so trajale štiri leta, preden so padle. Sodobne stene Xi'ana, tako kot Kitajski zid, je dinastija Ming obnovila in obnovila.

Obzidje v Evropi in Hadrijanov zid

V Evropi se je običaj obzidanega mesta nadaljeval, kar dokazujejo najdišča, kot je Oppidum Manching (ki se nahaja v bližini sodobnega Ingolstadta v Nemčiji), ki je bila iz 3. stoletja pred našim štetjem keltska skupnost plemena Vindelici. Rimsko mesto Lugo v Galiciji v Španiji je bilo obdano z ogromno debelimi zidovi, ki veljajo za popolnoma nepremagljive. Najbolj znano antično obzidje v Evropi pa je Hadrijanov zid v Veliki Britaniji.

Rimski cesar Hadrijan (r. 117-138 n. Št.) Se je naveličal vdorov v rimske pokrajine v Veliki Britaniji in tako je v letu 122 n. podobno, kot je Shulgi svoj zid pripravil skoraj dva tisoč let prej, da bi preprečil Amorite (kot pri Kitajskem zidu in Anastazijskem zidu). Gradnja je trajala šest let, raztegnila se je po kopnem na 128 kilometrov in bila na mestih široka 2,7 metra in visoka 6 metrov. Ob poti so ga utrdili stolpi in služili kot simbol rimske vojaške moči in moči.

Kasnejši Antoninov zid (ki se je začel leta 142 pred našim štetjem pod vladavino rimskega cesarja Antonina Pija) se je raztezal 63 kilometrov med Firth of Forth in Firth of Clyde in je bil zgrajen iz istega razloga kot druga tovrstna obzidja: za zaščito znano območje prebivalcev pred vdori "drugih", ki so jih imeli za nevarne barbare.

Zaključek

Kot je navedeno, so stene vedno služile istemu osnovnemu namenu in hkrati imele isto slabost: vsak, ki resnično želi obiti steno, bo našel način, da se pod njo prebije, gre čez ali se sprehodi . Kitajski zid je bil sprva neuporaben pri ustavitvi nomadske konjenice Xiongnu in je šele stoletja pozneje postal grozljiva zgradba, kakršna je danes. Kot smo že omenili, so Elamiti preprosto hodili po steni Shulgi iz Ura, Hadrijanov zid pa ni veliko preprečil nezakonitega priseljevanja, kar dokazujejo kaledonski artefakti, najdeni sredi rimskih kosov, kar kaže na to, da so piktski trgovci trgovali (ali podkupovali) rimske vojake.

Ne glede na to, kako nesmiseln je bil zid v smislu obrambe ali omejevanja dostopa 'drugega' do svojih dežel, so zidove še naprej gradili in pogosto utrjevali že od rimskih časov, da bi se prebivalci počutili bolj varne. Tako kot Hadrijanov zid so stene na splošno simbolične, saj označujejo svoj prostor kot svoj in omejujejo dostop do drugih s fizično izjavo, da bi se počutili bolj varne. Ljudem se nikoli ni zdelo, da bi bilo tisto, kar izpostavljajo, dolgoročno bolj koristno kot škodljivo, toda ljudje so kratkovidni in v veliki meri motivirani za strah, zato je skoraj gotovo, da se bodo zidovi nadaljevali graditi, ločevati narod od naroda in soseda od soseda naprej v prihodnost brez konca.


Berlinski zid

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Berlinski zid, Nemščina Berliner Mauer, ovira, ki je obkrožala Zahodni Berlin in preprečevala dostop do njega iz vzhodnega Berlina in sosednjih območij vzhodne Nemčije v obdobju od 1961 do 1989. V letih med 1949 in 1961 je približno 2,5 milijona vzhodnih Nemcev pobegnilo iz vzhodne v zahodno Nemčijo, vključno z nenehno narašča število kvalificiranih delavcev, strokovnjakov in intelektualcev. Njihova izguba je grozila, da bo uničila gospodarsko sposobnost vzhodnonemške države. Vzhodna Nemčija je v odgovor zgradila oviro, s katero je Vzhodnim Nemcem zaprla dostop do Zahodnega Berlina in s tem Zahodne Nemčije. Ta pregrada, berlinski zid, je bila prvič postavljena v noči z 12. na 13. avgust 1961 na podlagi odloka, ki ga je 12. avgusta sprejel vzhodnonemški Volkskammer (»ljudski zbor«). Prvotni zid, zgrajen iz bodeče žice in blokov, je bil kasneje nadomeščen z vrsto betonskih sten (visokih do 5 metrov), ki so bile prekrito z bodečo žico in varovane s stražnimi stolpi, pištolami in rudniki. Do osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja se je sistem obzidja, elektrificiranih ograj in utrdb razširil na 45 kilometrov (45 kilometrov) skozi Berlin, ločeval oba dela mesta in razširil še 120 kilometrov okoli Zahodnega Berlina in ga ločil od ostalih. vzhodne Nemčije.


Zahodni zid

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Zahodni zid, Hebrejščina Ha-Kotel Ha-Maʿaravi, tudi klical Zid objokovanja, v starem mestnem jedru Jeruzalema, kraju molitve in romanja, ki je sveto judovskemu ljudstvu. To so edini ostanki podporne stene, ki obdaja tempeljsko goro, mesto prvega in drugega jeruzalemskega templja, ki so jo stari Judje šteli za edinstveno sveto. Prvi tempelj so Babilonci uničili v letih 587–586 pr.n.št., Drugi tempelj pa so Rimljani uničili v 70.

Pristnost Zahodnega zidu so potrdile tradicija, zgodovina in arheološke raziskave, ki izvirajo iz približno 2. stoletja pred našim štetjem, čeprav so bili njegovi zgornji deli dodani pozneje. Besedila, ki pojasnjujejo preživetje obzidja, kažejo na to, da je Bog ta del shranil za judovsko ljudstvo, drugo pa na to, da ga je Tit pustil kot boleč opomin na rimski poraz Judeje.

Ker je zid zdaj del večjega zidu, ki obdaja muslimansko kupolo na skali in mošejo Al-Aqṣā, so Judje in Arabci pogosto izpodbijali nadzor nad zidom in pogosto pravico do dostopa do njega. Ta konflikt se je še posebej razgrel, odkar je izraelska vlada po šestdnevni vojni junija 1967 v celoti prevzela nadzor nad starim mestom.

Kot je razvidno iz današnjega časa, zahodni zid meri približno 50 metrov (160 čevljev) v dolžino in približno 20 metrov (60 čevljev) v višino stene, vendar sega precej globlje v zemljo. Tamkajšnje judovske pobožnosti izvirajo iz zgodnjega bizantinskega obdobja in potrjujejo rabinsko prepričanje, da »božanska prisotnost nikoli ne odstopa od zahodnega zidu«. Judje objokujejo uničenje templja in molijo za njegovo obnovo, že dolgo pa je v navadi potiskati liste papirja z željami ali molitvami v razpoke v steni. Takšne izraze, kot je Zid plača, so skovali evropski popotniki, ki so bili priča žalostnim budnicam pobožnih Judov pred relikvijo.

Arabski in judovski viri potrjujejo, da so Judje po arabskem zavzetju Jeruzalema leta 638 Judje popeljali osvajalce na mesto dvorišča Svete skale in templja ter pomagali očistiti naplavine.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje revidirala in posodobila Barbara A. Schreiber.


Dinastija Han (206 pr. N. Št. - 220 n. Št.)

Ruševine obzidja dinastije Han pri Dunhuangu, Gansu

Po smrti Qin Shihuanga leta 210 pred našim štetjem dinastija Qin ni ohranila svoje oblasti in jo je zamenjala dinastija Han. To je bila ena od zlatih dob Kitajske, ko je bil narod konsolidiran.

Severne utrdbe so bile okrepili in podaljšali, z odseki stene, ki tečejo vzporedno več sto kilometrov in se med seboj povezujejo vzdolž notranje mongolske meje.

Kineski zid dinastije Han od severnokorejske obale v bližini Pjongjanga na vzhodu do prelaza Jade Gate na zahodu je bil najdaljši, ki ga je Veliki zid kdaj imel na več kot 8000 km (5000 milj). Skupna dolžina je vključevala številne razvejane stene, naravne pregrade in jarke.


Izraelska priključitev zidu

Po vojni leta 1948 in arabskem zavzetju judovske četrti v Jeruzalemu je bilo Judom na splošno prepovedano moliti pri Zidu objokovanja, ki so ga včasih pokvarili politični plakati.

Izrael je takoj po šestdnevni vojni leta 1967 priključil arabski vzhodni Jeruzalem in prevzel lastništvo nad mestnimi verskimi objekti. Spodbujen-in v strahu, da so Izraelci začeli kopati predor, začenši od Zida plača in pod tempeljskim gorom, kmalu po koncu vojne je bil zasnovan tako, da bi spodkopal temelje mošeje Al-Aqsa, tretje najsvetejše mesto islama po mošejah v Meki in Medina v Savdski Arabiji - Palestinci in drugi muslimani so sprožili spopad, kar je sprožilo spopad z izraelskimi silami, v katerem je umrlo pet Arabcev, stotine pa ranjenih.

Januarja 2016 je izraelska vlada odobrila prvi prostor, kjer lahko nepravoslavni Judje obeh spolov molijo drug ob drugem, prva reformna molitvena molitev moških in žensk pa je bila februarja 2016 v delu stene, znanem kot Robinsonova Arch.


Zgodovina zidov je dolga. Tukaj se prilega Donald Trump

V dneh po tem, ko je predsednik Donald Trump podpisal izvršni ukaz, ki dovoljuje “ takojšnjo ” gradnjo obzidja ob meji med ZDA in Mehiko, sledil je še en izvršni ukaz, ki beguncem in državljanom sedmih pretežno muslimanskih držav prepoveduje vstop v ZDA (in blokiranje sirskih beguncev za nedoločen čas), so ta konec tedna marsikje po Združenih državah Amerike slišale štiri besede: “Ne prepovedi! No Wall! ”

Medtem ko je na mednarodnem letališču JFK v New Yorku in na drugih mednarodnih letališčih po vsej državi utaborilo na tisoče protestnikov, ki so protestirali proti Trumpovim dejanjem, je to razpoloženje postalo priljubljeno pri znakih in napevih.

Toda Trumpova stena ni le kontroverzna. Pogled na to, katere skupine so skozi zgodovino postavile stene & mdashand zakaj & mdashcan nam pomaga razumeti, kako edinstven bi bil predlagani zid.

“ Posebnost je, da je to stena proti priseljevanju & mdashand do neke mere tudi tihotapljenje drog in orožja & mdash, medtem ko so v zgodovini druge znane ali zloglasne stene skoraj vedno blokirale napadalne vojske, ” pravi Wendy Brown, avtorica Obzidane države, zmanjševanje suverenosti in profesor političnih znanosti na kalifornijski univerzi v Berkeleyju.

Kaj lahko naredijo stene

Človek postavlja zidove že od pradavnine, čeprav zgodovinarji pravijo, da je težko določiti natančen rojstni dan koncepta, kakršnega poznamo danes. Dejansko so protestniki s povezovanjem rok in sedenjem na letaliških dvoranah ta konec tedna nedvomno poustvarili tisto, kar znanstveniki menijo, da so prve stene doslej, saj obstajajo dokazi, da bi prazgodovinski ljudje sami delovali kot stene, če bi stali ali sedeli drug ob drugem in pri tem ostali nevarni živali zunaj in otroci noter. Civilizacije so se pogosto pojavljale obdane z naravnimi stenami, podobnimi gorskim verigam, in sčasoma so ljudje začeli graditi svoje.

Te stene so bile na najbolj osnovni ravni vedno oblika komunikacije. Lahko na primer signalizirajo, da je skupnost izolirana, in povedajo “drugom ”, naj se držijo stran.

Evropska mesta so za to funkcijo uporabljala obzidje po koncu rimskega nadzora v srednjem veku, ko so bile vasi prepuščene obrambi. Ta faza se je po besedah ​​Petra Andreasa, politologa na Inštitutu za mednarodne in javne zadeve Watson, končala, v času izuma topovskega in mdasha orožja, ki je dovolj močno, da razbije stene. Prebivalci so morali iskati nove metode samoobrambe. Toda stene niso bile uporabne: potem ko so velika ozemlja podpisala pogodbo iz 17. stoletja, v kateri so se medsebojno spoštovale suverenost na določenih območjih, so se zidovi začeli premikati z robov mest na robove narodov, opredeliti in zaščititi meje novih močnih držav.

Ves čas pravi Berkeley ’s Wendy Brown, najbolj znano obzidje zgodovine je služilo posebnim obrambnim namenom, hkrati pa je projiciralo podobo moči za ljudi, ki so jih zgradili. (To funkcijo lahko izpolnijo stene, ki niso dobesedno stene, na primer francoska linija Maginot iz 1930 -ih ali nacistična Nemčija in atlantska stena Nemčije, oba sta bila vrsta utrdb in ne enotnih zidov.) Čeprav gre le za eno stran do zgraditi zid, strokovnjaki pravijo, da na splošno najbolje delujejo, ko jih obe strani tam želita.

To je eden od razlogov, zakaj je zgodovina berlinskega zidu dober način za ponazoritev moči in pomena zidov.

Vzhodni Nemci, ki so ga zgradili avgusta leta 1961 in mdashjud dva meseca po tem, ko je vodja stranke Walter Ulbricht na tiskovni konferenci trdil, da “nehče ” namerava zgraditi takšen zid & mdashwanned, da prepreči odhod državljanov, in zahodnonemški uradniki na drugi strani sprva so bili s tem v redu. Čeprav so ZDA javno protestirale proti zidu, dokazi kažejo, da so bile zahodne sile v ozadju manj zaskrbljene zaradi obzidja, kot so se morda zdele. Tako je bil sprva uveljavljen zid, ki si deli moč.

Ljudje pa so se počutili drugače. Stena ni bila priljubljena, saj je TIME 31. avgusta 1962 raziskal naslovno zgodbo o opustošenem življenju, ki ga je opredelil:

Na ravnem, odprtem podeželju znotraj mestne severne meje je dežela na zahodu kockasta z rjavimi pšeničnimi polji in bujnimi, zelenimi, krompirjevimi vrtovi. Vzhodno se razteza dežela brez človeka, kjer nekoč rodovitna polja ležijo opustošena in mrtva. Lahko sta v dveh različnih svetovih in v nekem smislu sta. Tudi podeželje zunaj Berlina je razdeljeno na vzhodno in zahodno z začarano, neprehodno živo mejo iz zarjavele bodeče žice in betona. Ko se kači proti jugu proti razdeljenemu mestu, postane Zid.

Redkokdaj v zgodovini so bili bloki in malta tako zlonamerno zaposleni ali so bili v zameno tako sovražni. Eno leto star ta mesec, Wall of Shame, kot ga pogosto imenujejo, razcepi berlinske obraze z ranami, kot neozdravljena rana, njena grozota žali oko, saj njegova nečlovečnost boli srce. 27 milj se vrti skozi mesto, amputira ponosne trge in prometne ceste, nesramno koraka po pokopališčih in vrtovih, deli družine in prijatelje ter pretvori cele ulične fronte v zazidano praznino. “Zid, ” ne razmišlja o berlinskem policistu, “ ni samo žalosten. To ni samo smešno. Je shizofrenično. ”

Del tega vzroka za ta shizofreni vidik stene je bil v tem, da je bil Berlin razvit, preden je bil razdeljen, ”, kot je zapisal Marc Silberman, ki je souredil zbornik Stene, meje, meje: prostorske in kulturne prakse v Evropi, in ki je živel v Berlinu kot podiplomski študent od poznih#821760 in zgodnjih 󈨊 let. “ Imel si podzemne železnice pod obzidjem, nadzemni mestni vlak, ki je bil v lasti Vzhodne Nemčije, a je potoval skozi Zahodni Berlin, «se spominja. “Zahodni Berlin je Vzhodni Nemčiji plačal tudi, da je odnesel smeti in jih poslal čez mejo. ”

In ker zid ni mogel resnično ločiti ljudi, ki so nekoč živeli v istem mestu, ni mogel v celoti izpolniti svoje funkcije, da ljudem prepreči odhod. Silberman na primer pravi, da bi študentje, ki so imeli koristi od brezplačnega izobraževalnega sistema Vzhodne Nemčije, pozneje odšli v Zahodni Berlin iskat delo.

Od dneva, ko je bil zgrajen, do njegovega padca leta 1989, je bil pomen berlinskega zidu zapleten: poslal je sporočilo o nadzoru in opredelil mejo, vendar je šlo veliko za željo ljudi, da bi se združili je govoril o tistih na oblasti, ki jih želijo ločiti.

Prebojne stene

Toda Berlin ni bil edinstven. Veliki zidovi zgodovine so bili skoraj vedno prodorni. Ne glede na vse, ljudje pridejo na drugo stran. Prenašajo se tudi bolezni, onesnaževanje, vremenski vzorci in naravne nesreče, da ne govorimo o brezpilotnih letalih in drugih načinih nadzora.

Leta 1453 so Osmanski Turki z lahkoto podrli tresoče se obzidje Konstantinopla, da bi mesto spremenili v Istanbul, prestolnico svojega cesarstva. V času rimskega cesarstva so Hadrijanovo steno, v bližini sodobne meje med Anglijo in Škotsko, desetinekrat prečkali bendi “Barbarov ”, ki so jih Rimljani poskušali zadržati. Arheologi so odkrili, da je obseg Jerihonskega zidu veliko bolj impresiven, kot je opisan v Svetem pismu, vendar se je, tako kot berlinski zid, sčasoma podrl.

Toda stena ni nujno neprebojna, da bi imela velik vpliv na kraj, kjer stoji.

Na primer, medtem ko je bil Veliki kitajski zid zasnovan tako, da preprečuje napadalcem iz Mongolije in drugod, Silberman trdi, da je služil tudi namenu združevanja Kitajske. “ Bilo je zelo jasno, da obstaja zunanja grožnja in da se mora imperij združiti pod močnim vodstvom, "#pravi. Tako obzidje bi se včasih lahko počutilo tudi kot svoje mesto z vojaki, obdanimi na mejah.

Nekatere stene so se razvile v mesta družbene izmenjave. Tisoče let naj bi šestmilometrska stena obkrožala mesto Uruk v Mezopotamiji (danes sodobna Warka v Iraku), postavljeno po naročilu legendarnega kralja Gilgameša. Piktogrami, vtisnjeni v blatne opeke mestnega obzidja, veljajo za enega najstarejših primerov pisanja. Zid “Peace Wall ” na meji s Severno Irsko naj bi katoličanom in protestantom preprečil, da bi se medsebojno napadli, zdaj pa na meji potekajo plesni festivali. Stena, ki se je dvignila na Zahodnem bregu med drugo intifado v zgodnjih 2000-ih, je zagotovila platno za skrivnostnega umetnika Banksyja, ki ga je popršil s satiričnimi podobami, ki si predstavljajo življenje na drugi strani. Ta kontroverzen zid je včasih služil tudi kot zbirališče protestnikov. (Najbolj znana izraelska stena#8217 pa ni pregradna stena, o kateri tukaj govorimo. Namesto tega je zahodna stena ali stena ograje ” ostanek temeljev starodavnega drugega templja v Jeruzalemu.) In zamisel o obzidju je bila močno orodje za ustvarjanje zbirališča, kot je razvidno na spominu veteranov v Vietnamu in spominu veteranov korejske vojne v Washingtonu, DC

Berlin bi bil danes zelo drugačno mesto, če tudi zid ne bi obstajal.

“ Zgodba o stenah kot samo ločevalcih ni posebej zgodovinsko natančna, ” pravi Thomas Oles, avtor knjige Stene: Ograjevanje in etika v sodobni krajini in profesor krajinske arhitekture na Švedski univerzi za kmetijske vede. Trdi, da je berlinski zid ključni razlog, da berlinska umetniška scena trenutno uspeva, saj je postala mesto, kjer so ljudje lahko živeli na način, ki je odstopal od standardov preostale Nemčije. ” (grafiti umetniki so steno uporabili tudi kot platno.)

Čeprav lahko traja nekaj časa, da vidite prave učinke stene, je le redko rezultat zgolj ločitev stranic.

“Steni združujejo ljudi v procesu njihove gradnje ali razgradnje, ” pravi. “Izključujejo. Vključujejo. Razdelijo se. In se vežejo. ”

Udar v zid

Kaj torej vsa ta zgodovina pomeni za predsednika Trumpa?

Najprej bi bile skupine, ki jih ločuje mejno obzidje med ZDA in Mehiko, nenavaden par, ki bi se znašel na nasprotnih straneh take strukture: kot poudarja Andreas, so zidovi zgodovinsko zgrajeni med narodi, ki so sovražniki. “ Danes je Mehika tretji največji trgovinski partner Amerike,#pravi. “ Zamisel o postavitvi skoraj 2.000 milj dolgega zidu med prijaznimi, visoko integriranimi gospodarstvi je brez primere, zgodovinsko ali danes. ”

To je še večji razlog, da Silberman trdi, da se zdi, da Trump ideje ne uporablja toliko, da bi koga zadrževal ali odstranil, ampak da bi Združil ZDA za idejo, podobno kot so se Kitajci zbrali okoli namena veliki zid. In obstaja veliko dokazov, da bi bil zid v veliki meri simboličen: študija Pew Research Center iz novembra 2015 je poročala, da več Mehičanov zapušča ZDA kot vstopa. Priseljenci brez dokumentov, ki dejansko prispejo, na splošno ne hodijo čez mejo, ampak prihajajo v ZDA z vlakom ali (kot ocenjuje Pew za približno polovico nepooblaščenih priseljencev), ki jim zamuja vizum.

Še ena zanimivost Trumpove stene je, da je uporaba besede sama po svetu po hladni vojni nenavadna, pravi Andreas. Delno zahvaljujoč berlinskemu zidu in trajni podobi železne zavese je beseda postala nekakšen “tabu ” v Evropi. (To ni preprečilo voditeljem, da bi v času krize postavili na hitro zgrajene ograje, na mestih, kot sta srbsko-madžarska meja in Ceuta na špansko-maroški meji.)

Pred osmimi leti, ko je bil Barack Obama ameriški senator, ki se je potegoval za predsednika, je v govoru v Berlinu opozoril na metaforične stene, da je največja nevarnost, da dovolijo novim zidom, da nas ločijo drug od drugega, in se odrežejo predsedniku Ronaldu Reaganu 12. junija 1987, prosil komunistične voditelje, naj porušijo berlinski zid. Danes je zamisel o zidu veliko bolj dobesedna, zaradi česar je župan Berlina Michael M & uumlller prosil “Mr. Predsednik, ne gradite tega zidu! ” in se sklicujte na preteklost Berlina kot opomnik, da lahko zidovi povzročijo trpljenje.

Zgodovina kaže, da stena verjetno ne bo ločila obeh strani, razen če si državljani Mehike in ZDA ne želijo biti ločeni drug od drugega. Toda karkoli se zgodi s Trumpovim zidom, je eno gotovo: stene ne gredo nikamor.

Obzidje srednjeveških evropskih mestnih držav se je dvignilo iz istega razloga, da so lastniki stanovanj postavili bele ograje, in to je impulz, ki je samo človeški.

“W & Rsquore teritorialna bitja, poskušamo zavarovati meje, ” trdi Janet Ward, ki je sourednica antologije Stene, meje, meje: prostorske in kulturne prakse v Evropi in je profesor zgodovine na univerzi v Oklahomi. “Ne ’ se ne bomo oddaljili od tega človeškega pogona. ”


Berlinski zid se dvigne

Govorice so se širile, da bi se lahko kaj zaostrilo na meji vzhodnega in zahodnega Berlina. Nihče ni pričakoval hitrosti - niti absolutnosti - berlinskega zidu.

Malo po polnoči v noči z 12. na 13. avgust 1961 so tovornjaki z vojaki in gradbenimi delavci ropotali po vzhodnem Berlinu. Medtem ko je večina Berlincev spala, so te posadke začele trgati ulice, ki so vstopile v Zahodni Berlin. Kopali so luknje za postavitev betonskih stebrov in nanizali bodečo žico po vsej meji med vzhodnim in zahodnim Berlinom. Prekinjene so bile tudi telefonske žice med Vzhodnim in Zahodnim Berlinom in blokirane železniške proge.

Berlinčani so bili zjutraj šokirani, ko so se zbudili. Meja, ki je bila nekoč zelo tekoča, je bila danes trda. Vzhodni Berlinčani niso mogli več prestopiti meje zaradi oper, iger, nogometnih tekem ali katere koli druge dejavnosti. Približno 50.000 do 70.000 potnikov se ni moglo več odpraviti v zahodni Berlin na dobro plačana dela. Družine, prijatelji in zaljubljenci niso mogli več prečkati meje, da bi spoznali svoje ljubljene.

Na kateri koli strani meje se je ponoči 12. avgusta spal, so na tej strani ostali desetletja.


Zgodaj sedemdesetih let

Skateboarderji, ki imajo radi Vansov robusten make-up in lepljiv podplat, so po vsej južni Kaliforniji videti športni kombiji.

Vans #95, zdaj znan kot Era, z oblazinjenim ovratnikom in različnimi barvnimi kombinacijami, je oblikoval Tony Alva in Stacy Peralta in postane čevelj izbire za generacijo rolkarjev.

Vansov logotip "Off the Wall" se je prvič predstavil.

Kombiji #36, Stari Škool, debitira s zdaj znanim Vans Sidestrapom. Old Skool je prvi Vansov čevelj za rolkanje, ki vključuje usnjene plošče za večjo vzdržljivost. Kar je Paul Van Doren začel kot naključni logotip, je bilo prvotno označeno kot "jazz stripe" in je postalo nedvomni znak blagovne znamke Vans.

Predstavljen je tudi kombi #98 in s pomočjo rolkarjev in kolesarjev BMX Vans Klasični drsniki postala bes v južni Kaliforniji in bo postala prvotna Slip-On silhueta, ki bo generacijam znana kot ikona.

Do konca sedemdesetih let ima Vans 70 trgovin v Kaliforniji in prodaja prek trgovcev tako na nacionalni kot na mednarodni ravni.

The Sk8-zdravo je bil predstavljen leta 1978 kot "Style 38" in je predstavil zdaj ikonični Vans Sidestripe na še eni inovativni silhueti. As only the second model featuring the recognizable marker formerly known as the "jazz stripe," the Sk8-Hi took skate functionality to the next level—above the ankle, where skateboarders used and abused their lower extremities the most. The Sk8-Hi not only shielded bones from skateboards catapulted at them but also brought a whole new look to the park.

Vans Classic Slip-Ons gain international attention and appeal when they are worn by Sean Penn in the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High.

Vans files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Although the core Vans shoes are selling well, the wide range of products that Vans offers have drained company resources and Vans is not able to overcome debt.

Courts approve re-organization plan as Paul Van Doren returns as President Paul tells all employees that they may not get a raise for three years and they will need to cut back on everything but the quality of Vans shoes.

In three years, Vans has paid back all creditors 100 cents on the dollar and in December, Vans re-emerges from the $12 million debt and Chapter 11.

The Vans Steve Caballero, the first signature skate shoe, is introduced. Vans introduces weather resistant materials to footwear labeled Mountain Edition for the first time.

Vans makes initial public offering of stock at $14 on the NASDAQ stock exchange.

Vans introduces the Vans Snowboard Boot in the fall '93 / winter '94 snow season.

Vans sponsors the Warped Tour for the first time In 2001 Vans will buy a controlling interest in what is now the Vans Warped Tour, the longest running concert series in America.

Vans sponsors the inaugural Triple Crown of Skateboarding event.

Vans and Supreme launch long-term partnership with a series of co-branded Old Skools.

Vans begins creating the world's leading action sports series with the purchase of the Triple Crown of Surfing by 2000 the Vans Triple Crown Series will include events in skateboarding, BMX, surfing, wakeboarding, snowboarding, freestyle motocross and supercross. The Series is broadcast on ESPN2.

Vans opens first of its kind, 46,000 square-foot indoor/outdoor Vans Skatepark at the Block at Orange mall in Orange County.

Daniel Franck wins Olympic Silver Medal in Vans snowboard boots at the Nagano Games.

Vans recognized by Forbes as one of "America's Best Small Companies for 2000."

Vans assists with the production of "Dogtown and Z-Boys," Stacy Peralta's look at the beginnings of skateboarding and the personalities that evolved the sport. The film takes the Audience Award and Best Director Award at the Sundance Film Festival. The film is narrated by Sean Penn. Shortly after, the film will be released to the public further cementing Vans' heritage in skateboarding.

Vans enters into television broadcast deals for the Vans Triple Crown Series with NBC Sports and Fox Sports Net.

Vans buys controlling interest of the Vans Warped Tour, the nation's leading action sports and music festival.

Danny Kass in Doriane Vidal each win medals at the Salt Lake City Olympic games wearing Vans snowboard boots.

Vans skate team embarks on its first-ever international tour when the Pleased to Meet You Tour hits seven countries in Europe and then returns to the States for stops in 30 cities.

The Vans Triple Crown Series is bigger than ever with more than 285,000 event attendees and another 50 million + watching on NBC Sports and Fox Sports Net.

Vans launches the Vault by Vans collection, an offering of timeless footwear melding the worlds of high-fashion and premium design to Vans' classic silhouettes.

Vans launches Vans Customs at www.vans.com, allowing would be fashion designers to create their own Classic Slip-ons utilizing hundreds of different color and pattern combinations. In October, the Old Skool is added to styles available.

In June, VF Corporation completes purchase of Vans for $396 million including stock options.

The Vans Warped Tour, passing the 500,000-attendee plateau for the first time, celebrates its 10 th Anniversary.

In an event that many in the skate industry claim may be the best bowl contest of all time, Rune Glifberg, Chris Miller and Cara-Beth Burnside are winners at the inaugural Pro-tec Pool Party in the replica of the legendary and dearly-departed Combi Bowl at the Vans Skatepark at the Block at Orange. The May 14 event takes place in front of a packed house and draws a throng of past masters and top pros.

Vans creates a new concept in skate street contests with the Vans Downtown Showdown, held in the Universal Studios Back Lot on Labor Day. Skateboard companies are invited to submit designs for obstacles that were then sessioned in a Brooklyn city block setting. Toy Machine took the team title, while Chris Cole and Angel Ramirez took the Pro and Am titles, respectively.

The freestyle BMX world descends on Las Vegas at the end of September for the first Vans/Hard Rock Let it Ride BMX Jam. Ryan Guettler takes the Dirt title, while Scotty Cranmer wins the Street crown.

Vans continues to forge innovative collaborative efforts through the Vault by Vans line with Vans sneaker combinations with design giant Marc Jacobs and OC up-and-comers Trovata flying off shelves.

Vans celebrates 40 years at the heart of youth culture.

Long known as the leader in action sports footwear, Vans launches an extensive apparel collection for both men and women. Pro skater Anthony Van Engelen becomes the first team rider for Vans Apparel.

Vans renews old acquaintances when legendary skater Christian Hosoi joins the team. Skaters celebrate by snapping up the limited edition Hosoi Rising Sun Sk8-Hi.

Recognizing the cultural relevance of the Vans Warped Tour and its significance to the punk-rock and skate community, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in Cleveland opens an exhibit documenting the Tour's first 12 years.

Vans releases perhaps its most anticipated special collection to date with the Vans x The Simpsons series that features artwork from Kaws, Stash, Gary Panter, Geoff McFetridge, Dave Flores, Futura, Mr. Cartoon, Sam Messner, Taka Hayashi, Tony Munoz, Todd James and Neckface.

Vans brings its brand of youth culture to Kitajska with the opening of the first Vans retail store in Shanghai.

Long-time Vans surf team rider Joel Tudor signs on as the first surfer on Vans' apparel program.

Harry N. Abrams publishes "Vans: Off the Wall, Stories of Sole from Vans Originals" which recounts the story of the many action sports legends, artists and musicians who have helped shape Vans as an icon of California culture.

Vans opens the House of Vans event space in Brooklyn, NY with music by Public Enemy and a hard charging bowl session headlined by skate legends Tony Alva, Steve Caballero and Omar Hassan.

326 schools across the United States participate in Vans Custom Culture, the high school shoe customization contest which culminates in four schools traveling to Vans' home turf for a weekend of activities including the final showcase at the Orange County Museum of Art. Winning school Rio Rancho High School of New Mexico receives a $10,000 grant towards the school's art programs.

Joel Tudor and Vans create the Joel Tudor Duct Tape Invitational contest series to showcase progressive longboard surfing. In the first two years, the Duct Tape contests were held in such iconic surf venues as Virginia Beach, Montauk, Santa Cruz, Malibu and Salinas, Spain.

Vans partners with boutique surf shop Thalia to open its first partner retail space, Vans by Thalia Surf Shop. The store highlights Vans surf apparel and footwear, in addition to an assortment of lifestyle-driven pieces.

Vans releases its first-ever surf film, "Get-N Classic, Vol. 1" featuring the Gudauskas brothers, Joel Tudor, John Florence and the rest of the Vans surf team. Vans surf program is clicking on all cylinders with the addition of the team's first Australian in Wade Goodall and one of the most exciting surfers in the world, Dane Reynolds.

Vans' global expansion continues with milestones including distribution into Indija, our first international partner store with Off the Hook (OTH) v Montreal in Vans by Fly Streetwear v Shanghai, plus the opening of the first company-owned Vans stores in Mehika.

Stateside, Vans opens its first partner store on the East Coast and the first company retail space in Manhattan when the Vans DQM General opens in SoHo.

In November, Vans passes $1 billion in annual global sales for the first time in its history as the largest single action sports brand in the world and the first company rooted in skateboarding to achieve this level of success.

Twilight Saga star Kristen Stewart cements her celebrity status on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in a pair of black and white Checkerboard Slip-Ons forever stamping the notorious cement with the Vans Waffle Sole.

Vans celebrates the 20 th anniversary of the Half Cab, Steve Caballero's iconic skateboarding style, widely regarded as the most important shoe in the history of skateboarding and skate culture.

No Room for Rockstars debuts in April as the first full-length documentary film about the Vans Warped Tour, produced by the same team that brought to life Dogtown and Z-Boys. The film is accepted into the Slamdance Film Festival as a featured presentation and shoots to the top of the iTunes Documentary Chart.

The Vans Triple Crown of Surfing celebrated 30 years as the ultimate contest series in surf.

Vans introduces the new UltraCush Lite technology in its LXVI footwear line. The UltraCush Lite is a custom blend of foams designed to provide superlight cushioning.

Vans introduces the first vulcanized cupsole. Novi WAFFLECUP™ technology combines the best of both worlds with the support and durability of a cupsole and the superior boardfeel and grip of the traditional Vans vulcanized shoe.

Vans' Get-N Classic Vol. 2 is released in October.

In an anniversary year, Vans celebrates 10 years of premium sneaker design with the anniversary of the Vault by Vans collection.

Vans celebrates 20 years of snowboarding heritage with the debut of its retrospective film Twenty Years: Off the Wall, On the Snow, produced in partnership with Mike Hatchett, legendary filmmaker and founder of Standard Films.

In celebration of 20 years of snow, Vans releases Mountain Edition Apparel, which offers a range of streetwear designs and is the first apparel collection designed specifically for the snow.

Vans collaborates with rock band Metallica. Each Metallica member - James Hetfield, Lars Ulrich, Kirk Hammett and Robert Trujillo - designs his own shoe and collaborates with Vans athletes including Pat Moore, Steve Caballero, Nathan Fletcher and Tony Trujillo for a special OffTheWall.TV series further defining what is means to be a part of the Vans family.

In July, Vans becomes the title sponsor for the US Open of Surfing in Huntington Beach, California.

Vans teams up with Disney for a Fall 2013 collaboration featuring some of the most beloved Disney characters such as Mickey Mouse, Winnie the Pooh in Donald Duck on Vans' classic shoes bringing back designs from the late 80's that had been lost from the archives.

More than 1,000 schools from all 50 states participate in Vans' Custom Culture Contest. Vans partnered with truth, Americans for the Arts, and Journeys to help raise awareness about the importance of arts in high schools. Vans has now contributed over $300,000 to support high school art programs

Vans Custom Culture expands to Brazil with 50 schools participating within the first year.

House of Vans takes to the Mohawk Stage at Austin's South by Southwest music festival.

Professional skateboarder Chima Ferguson and Vans create the Chima Pro shoe collection, the first signature pro model in six years.

The Ductumentary short film is released featuring Joel Tudor's contribution to surfing. Directed by Graham Nash and Reagan Richie, the film features Joel Tudor, Alex Knost, Tyler Warren, Ryan Burch, Jared Mell and more.

Vans implements a live webcast for its Triple Crown of Surfing event. The live webcast allows 3.5 million people from over 70 countries to view the competition, the most in its history. The final day of the competition received over 1 million in viewers alone.

Iouri 'iPod' Podladtchikov wins gold at the Sochi Olympic games wearing Vans snowboard boots dethroning previous gold medalist Shaun White.

Vans launches it's Living Off The Wall brand campaign. The campaign features documentarians from around the globe using words, images and motion pictures to embody the roots of originality defining Vans as Off The Wall.

In March, Vans opens a 42,000 square foot skatepark in Huntington Beach California. 1,000 people attend opening day skateboarding elite Geoff Rowley, Johnny Layton, Kyle Walker and Christian Hosoi.

Vans teams up with the Beatles franchise to create the Spring 2014 The Beatles Yellow Submarine by Vans collection inspired by the iconic artwork from The Yellow Submarine album and film.

In March, Vans takes the SXSW festival further with a five-day music activation at the House of Vans at the Mohawk stage and the creation of the Vans Village hosting daily open mic sessions for aspiring local musicians, a competitive BMX ramp and pop-up shop with a full Vans retail experience. Vans also releases four band reissues in celebration of the music festival.

In May, Vans celebrates the 10 th annual Vans Pool Party, and introduced a Legends division for the first time. Legend winners are Chris Miller, Jeff Grosso, and Christian Hosoi. Master winners are Bruno Passos, Brian Patch, and Darren Navarette.

Legendary Skateboarder Geoff Rowley joins the brand's impressive apparel program. Geoff Rowley-one hundred percent Skateboarder, now one hundred percent Vans

The Vans Warped Tour celebrates 20 years of music and kicks off the season with a live webcast of opening day.

In the fourth year, 2,000 schools participate in the Vans Custom Culture high school art competition. Vans has put more than $375,000 back into high school art programs nationwide to date. Vans Custom Culture Brazil enters its second year with 147 schools participating in the art competition.

Vans takes off to a galaxy far, far away for an out-of-this-world collection featuring artwork from the original Vojna zvezd trilogija. The Force is strong with Vans, offering products that extends from Classics and Vault by Vans footwear to men's apparel and women's accessories. By combining heritage Vans prints with iconic Star Wars characters, both entities present a truly unique capsule this universe has not yet seen.

Julija, Get-N Classic Vol. 3 is released featuring the Vans Surf Team, including legends Nathan Fletcher and Joel Tudor, Dane Reynolds, the Gudauskas brothers, Dylan Graves, Ivan and Nathan Florence, Leila Hurst, and more!

Vans, in partnership with Berklee College of Music, the world's leading college of contemporary music, proudly announce that Miette Hope-Goldman, 17-year-old singer-songwriter, has been named the first recipient of the Vans Berklee Off The Wall Scholarship - a four-year award covering tuition, room and board.

In August, House of Vans London, a 3,000sqm art, music and skate space under Waterloo station opens in London's creative playground. Representing the eclectic diversity of London and the cultures that have embraced Vans from its humble beginnings, through five decades, House of Vans opens with a showcase of creativity and a commitment to nurturing its next generation.

Steve Van Doren along with legends Tony Alva and Christian Hosoi, traveled to Boston in October to break ground on the long-awaited Lynch Family Skatepark that will open in Boston in 2015. For more than a decade, the Charles River Conservancy has battled to provide a safe environment and free park for local skateboarders and BMX riders.

Vans unveils a new retail experience in the high fashion district of Apgujeong in Seoul, Korea. Spreading across two floors and covering 330-square-meters in the heart of Rodeo Street, the new the Apgujeong store pays homage to Vans' long standing heritage and is designed as an immersive brand experience. On December 12, the local community celebrated the store opening with a live performance by Vans skateboarding legend Tony Alva.

Vans, is chosen as "Brand of the Year" by Footwear News during the trade publication's annual Achievement Awards in December 2014. Carol Lim and Humberto Leon of Opening Ceremony and creative directors behind Kenzo, present the award to Vans President Kevin Bailey.

In May 2015, Vans makes skateboarding history with the highly anticipated launch of PROPELLER: A Vans Skateboarding Video, Vans' first-ever skateboarding film. This momentous occasion saw valuable international exposure for the Vans Pro Skate Team and even more global recognition for Vans' storied legacy in skateboarding. PROPELLER becomes one of the fastest-selling skate films to ever hit iTunes.

In the summer of 2015, Vans releases the Disney and Vans 'Young at Heart' in Vault by Vans x Takashi Murakami zbirke. These collaborations become instant fan favorites selling out across the globe.

Vans debuts Geoff Rowley's first signature apparel collection with the launch of the new Rowley Solos in Pro Skate.

The Vans Online Integration Team received the "2015 VF Pinnacle Award". The prestigious honor is granted annually to one team in VF globally that has advanced the company's strategy imperatives through collaboration and excelling with a One VF approach.

2015 marks the 10 th anniversary od Vans Syndicate collection, Vans Pro Skate's celebration of the diverse heritage of ideas, attitudes and influences that make up skateboarding's unique culture. Vans pays tribute to this milestone by returning to several original Syndicate collaborators to represent a decade of iconoclastic style and heritage.

On March 16, 2016, Vans celebrates 50 years of “Off The Wall” heritage with the launch of The Story of Vans campaign. The historical multi-media campaign breaks records in viewership and is seen around the world in multiple languages. With a nod to the past and eyes on the future, Vans also expands the House of Vans by hosting ten activations around the world to honor the brand’s diverse history, while welcoming newcomers to the Vans family.

Vans cements 50 Years of heritage and progression with the Vans Pro Classics Anniversary Collection. Showcasing the most iconic footwear silhouettes from the archive, Vans re-issues heritage skate models upgraded with modern performance technologies, and designed exclusively for skateboarding. This collection is the ultimate culmination of Vans’ leadership in skateboarding, providing “The best, only better” from the Vans Pro Skate category.

Vans establishes skateboarding’s first ever men’s and women’s Park Terrain World Championship Series, the Vans Park Series. The Vans Park Series seeks to grow participation of skateboarding internationally and inspire the culture and values of skateboarding onto the global stage.

In June, Vans premiered Illustrated, the brands first full-length BMX film at the Mohawk in Austin, Texas. The Vans BMX Team is a group of individuals who are constantly pushing the boundaries of what can be done on two wheels. In doing so, each rider illustrates their own artistic approach and style on the many canvases of concrete, dirt and wood. Even after they are done riding their marks can still be seen in what has been left behind from the tire tracks in the dirt to the marks on the walls, rails and ledges. This is Illustrated

Vans continues to inspire creativity with expansion of its Vans Customs platform. The new system offers customization across a range of footwear classifications and allows the customs designer more freedom than ever to develop personal and unique designs.

Capping off an exciting year of events celebrating Vans’ 50th anniversary around the globe, House of Vans London welcomed one of the most influential rock bands in history, Metallica to the stage with a special intimate live performance to launch their eleventh studio album, Hardwired… to Self Destruct.

Vans launches its 2017 brand campaign – This Is “Off The Wall”, defining the evolved meaning of the iconic slogan. The campaign brings to life what it means to live “Off The Wall” through a series of short films showcasing individuals who inspire the brand through their creativity, authenticity and passion. This is our story. This is “Off The Wall”.

House of Vans Chicago opens up with a two-day celebration in early February. The event kicks off with music and a photography exhibit highlighting memorable moments at House of Vans locations worldwide. As the cultural hub of the Vans brand, this opening marks the third permanent location to date. House of Vans is where “Off The Wall” lives and serves as a direct connection for fans to experience the Vans brand globally.

Talented Vans pro skateboarder, Lizzie Armanto turns pro! Lizzie earns the coveted cover of Thrasher Magazine in May 2017. She is the first female to grace the cover of skateboarding’s famed bible in over two decades.

After 51 years of moving across the heart of Southern California, Vans, the original action sports brand and the icon of creative expression, has settled into a new global headquarters in Costa Mesa, CA. The new office signals Vans’ focus on continued growth and success.

Vans is the only brand to be included in all four categories of Transworld Snowboarding’s 2017-2018 “Tested & Approved” snowboard gear guide! Tested in all types of terrain from the East Coast to Iceland, the boots were judged based on flex, comfort, footbed construction and durability. This significant accolade champions Vans Snow Boots as multi-faceted, performance-driven boots designed for every kind of snowboard terrain possible.

Vans launches the UltraRange, a new perspective in footwear design. Living out of a suitcase on multiple expeditions a year, Vans pro surfer Pat Gudauskas finds endless inspiration traveling around the world in search of the perfect surf. With his collaborative insight, Vans ventured to create a new silhouette that offers maximum versatility across diverse landscapes and lifestyles resulting in the UltraRange. The UltraRange represents Vans’ path toward new innovation, and expands the brand’s vision to create functional, comfort-driven products.

The Vans BMX Pro Cup series debuts in 2017 as the world’s definitive platform for BMX park terrain competition, showcasing the most talented BMX athletes from across the globe. The Vans BMX Pro Cup kicks of its inaugural season in Sydney, Australia closing out with a remarkable finale at the US Open of Surfing in Huntington Beach, Calif. Larry Edgar takes the crown as Vans’ first-ever BMX Pro Cup World Champion.

Vans and Karl Lagerfeld announce the launch of an exclusive Vans x Karl Lagerfeld capsule collection in September. The Parisian-chic collection reinterprets the classic Vans silhouettes through the lens of the iconic fashion hub to deliver an effortlessly cool collaboration between two household names in fashion.

Vans celebrates 25 years of the Half Cab, the world’s most iconic signature skateboarding shoe. Constructed by street skaters in the early ‘90s by cutting the collar off the original Vans “Caballero” pro model, the iconic signature shoe for skateboarding legend Steve Caballero has stood the rest of time as a Vans Pro Skate favorite.

Vans Park Series continues to inspire the culture, participation and values of skateboarding globally while pushing the boundaries to make the sport universally accessible. In late September, Vans Park Series wraps up its 2017 Men’s and Women’s World Championships in Shanghai, China, crowning Oskar Rozenberg Hallberg and Nora Vasconcellos as the official 2017 Men’s and Women’s World Champions of Park Terrain Skateboarding.

In October, Vans announces the opening of The General by Vans at 102 N. 6th Street in Brooklyn, New York’s famed Williamsburg neighborhood. The 4,750-square foot space is the brand’s most ambitious and experience-driven store to date, featuring a Customs Design Studio, exhibition space and exclusive product offerings.


The Founding of Wall Street

Wall Street itself is a road that runs for six blocks near the southern tip of Manhattan. The New York Stock Exchange is located on this road, along with several banks. Wall Street as a financial entity is much bigger than that. For several square blocks around Wall Street, companies and the government run some of the most important financial organizations in the U.S. The Federal Reserve, the Wall Street Journal, the NASDAQ, the New York Mercantile Exchange and countless banks all operate nearby, even though none actually have a Wall Street address.

This has made Wall Street one of the most important financial centers in the world.

The truth is, the origins of Wall Street’s name is still debated among historians. It most likely began with a defensive position carved out by Dutch settlers.

When Manhattan was owned by the Dutch, they grew concerned that England would invade their small colony. (At the time what we know today as New York was called New Amsterdam.) To repel attackers, the Dutch built a wall between 9 and 12 feet high and 2,300 feet long around their settlement. It ran approximately along the area we know as Wall Street today, with gates approximately at the modern intersections of Wall Street and Pearl Street, and Wall Street and Broadway.

It is possible that this led the future wave of English settlers to name the place Wall Street, after the wall which ran along the road.

Other historians believe that the name came from the Walloons, French-speaking Dutch who were early settlers of Manhattan. This population became known simply as the Waal, and the main entrance to their settlement became known as the Waal Straat.

Wall Street’s history as a financial center began with slavery. The Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam conducted much of their trading outside, building a large outdoor marketplace for even financial transactions. This carried over after the English took over the land and turned it into New York.

In 1711, New York named Wall Street the location of the city’s slave market. Given the significant role that slavery played in the economics of the thirteen colonies, this quickly established the financial center of gravity in the young city. Men made fortunes trading slaves on the auction blocks of Wall Street, a practice that would not end for over 100 years.

Yet while the slave block made Wall Street important to New York City, it was a sycamore tree which made this little road nationally important.

By the late 18th century the young United States already had a financial center in Philadelphia, where stock and commodity traders did most of their work. Traders in New York wanted to compete with that market. Just as importantly, they wanted to keep out both government interference and any potential competitors. (This would echo the sentiment of even today’s self-styled free market capitalists.)

The result was the Buttonwood Agreement, named for the sycamore (or 𠇋uttonwood”) tree on Wall Street under which New York’s traders often met. As we wrote in a related piece:

In 1792, 24 stockbrokers — in a power play against the freewheeling auctioneers they competed against — signed the two-sentence "Buttonwood Agreement," named for a local Buttonwood tree at 68 Wall St. where they set up shop in good weather (in bad weather, they used a local coffee shop, then a rented space), to trade only with each other and for a 0.25% commission… "The new market would be more structured, conducted without manipulative actions," and would also draw business away from a formalized exchange already profitable in Philadelphia.

The Buttonwood Agreement helped begin the modern practice of limiting securities trading to registered brokers. Under this deal, no member would trade securities with someone who was not an approved broker under the agreement. Not long after, the Buttonwood traders built the New York Stock and Exchange Board, modeling it after the successful Philadelphia Merchants Exchange.

This laid the foundation for what Wall Street would become. Over the next century, Wall Street and New York City would build on each other. As New York became an increasingly prominent part of the American economy, the companies and traders attracted to the city brought their business to the financiers on Wall Street rather than those in Philadelphia.

Developments such as the opening of the Erie Canal, the nation’s first power plant on Pearl Street, and the first telegraph drove business to New York. Meanwhile the financiers on Wall Street pioneered financial innovations that made it easier to do business with them than with their competitors in Philadelphia, such as Charles Dow’s stock tracking system and the first stock tickers.

By the 20th century, the center of U.S. commerce had long since shifted to Wall Street. By the end of World War I, it had even surpassed the trading floors of London.


The Western Wall: History & Overview

The holiest place in Judaism is the Temple Mount where the Second Temple stood until it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E. Mistakenly, the Western Wall is generally thought to be the holiest site, but prayers at this location are a relatively recent phenomenon, which were prompted, ironically, by a Muslim conqueror.

Zgodovina

When the Romans razed the Temple, they left one outer wall standing. They probably would have destroyed that wall as well, but it must have seemed too insignificant to them since it was not part of the Temple itself, just a retaining wall surrounding the Temple Mount. It held no special significance, according to F.M. Loewenberg, until the 16th century when Sultan Suleyman I ( the Magnificent ) ended nearly 300 years of Mamluk rule and established the Ottoman Empire. Suleyman restored Jerusalem&rsquos city walls in 1536 and encouraged Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal to settle in the city.

In 1546, an earthquake devastated the region and damaged the Temple Mount and the surrounding area. Suleyman ordered the rubble of homes adjacent to the western wall to be cleared for a prayer site for the Jews. Loewenberg notes the area was previously unknown to the Jews. Suleyman issued a firman (decree) that Jews had the right to pray there for all times. This decree remained in force and was honored by his successors for more than 400 years.

Throughout the centuries Jews from throughout the world made the difficult pilgrimage to Palestine, and immediately headed for the Kotel ha-Ma'aravi (the Western Wall) to thank God. The prayers offered at the Kotel were so heartfelt that gentiles began calling the site the &ldquoWailing Wall.&rdquo This undignified name never won a wide following among traditional Jews the term &ldquoWailing Wall&rdquo is not used in Hebrew.

The Western Wall was subjected to far worse than semantic indignities. During the more than one thousand years Jerusalem was under Muslim rule, the Arabs often used the Wall as a garbage dump, so as to humiliate the Jews who visited it.

For most of that period, the area in front of the wall was a narrow alley only 4 meters wide and 28 meters long (less than six percent of the wall's total length of 488 meters) boxed in by a Muslim neighborhood known as the Mughrabi Quarter. According to Loewenberg, Jews did not regularly visit the Wall. They came on special occasions, such as Tisha B'Av, or to pray for help with personal problems. Later, the alley would become packed during festivals and Shabbat. Regular prayer at the Wall did not begin until the late 19th or early 20th century. By 1941, the popularity of visiting and praying at the Wall led the British-appointed chief rabbis to issue regulations for proper behavior at the Wall, which included the separation of men and women (the British did not permit the erection of a mechitzah).

For nineteen years, from 1948 to 1967, the Kotel was under Jordanian rule. Although the Jordanians had signed an armistice agreement in 1949 guaranteeing Jews the right to visit the Wall, not one Israeli Jew was ever permitted to do so.

The 1967 War

On the third day of the 1967 Six-Day War, Israeli paratroopers entered the Old City and took control over the Temple Mount and the Western Wall. Several days later, the houses of the Mugrabi Quarter were bulldozed to create the large plaza that exists today in front of the Western Wall, which allows thousands of worshippers to visit the site at one time. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, meanwhile, agreed the Muslim authorities (the Waqf) would retain control over the Muslim holy places on the Temple Mount. Jews were to have free access to visit, but they were prohibited from praying there to avoid conflict with the Muslims.

One of the first to reach the Kotel during the war was Dayan, who helped revive a traditional Jewish custom by inserting a written petition into its cracks. It was later revealed that Dayan's prayer was that a lasting peace descend upon the House of Israel. The custom of inserting written prayers (kvitlach) into the Kotel's cracks is so widespread that some American-Jewish newspapers carry advertisements for services that insert such prayers on behalf of sick Jews. Twice a year, cleaning teams using long sticks remove tens of thousands of the prayers from the crevices and bury them in bags on the Mount of Olives.

The mystical qualities associated with the Kotel are underscored in a popular Israeli song, a refrain of which runs: &ldquoThere are people with hearts of stone, and stones with hearts of people.&rdquo A rabbi in Jerusalem once told me that the Hebrew expression &ldquoThe walls have ears&rdquo was originally said about the Western Wall.

In addition to the large crowds that come to pray at the Kotel on Friday evenings, it is also a common gathering place on all Jewish holidays, particularly on the fast of Tisha B'Av,, which commemorates the destruction of both Temples. Today, the Wall is a national symbol, and the opening or closing ceremonies of many Jewish events, including secular ones, are conducted there.

Controversy

Unfortunately, even a symbol as unifying as the Kotel can become a source of controversy in Jewish life. Ultra-Orthodox Jews have long opposed organized women's prayer services at the Wall prayer services they maintain, may only be conducted by males. On occasion they have violently dispersed such services, throwing chairs and other &ldquomissiles&rdquo at the praying women. A separate area is available for women to pray, but they are prohibited from wearing prayer shawls normally worn by male worshippers, singing, or bringing Torah scrolls to the Wall. On occasion, women have defied the authorities and been harassed by men or arrested by the police.

On January 31, 2016, the Israeli government approved the creation of an &ldquoegalitarian&rdquo prayer space where non-Orthodox Jewish men and women can pray together at the Western Wall. This decision was met with praise from Jewish leaders across the globe, and opposition from Orthodox and ultra-Orthodox Israeli citizens and members of the government. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that the creation of this space was a &ldquofair and creative solution,&rdquo to rising tensions at the site.

The advocacy group Women of the Wall called the decision a victory, with the government recognizing that, according to the organization's chairwoman, &ldquothat there is more than one way to be Jewish.&rdquo The new prayer space was to be created South of the mens and women's prayer sections of the wall, in an area known as Robinson's Arch. The first Reform, mixed-gender prayer service to ever take place at the Western Wall was held at this new space on February 25, 2016.

In 2017, the government reneged on the deal to create the new egalitarian prayer space and defied a Supreme Court request to reconsider the decision. The government decision was widely viewed as a response to the opposition of religious parties in the coalition. Netanyahu reportedly feared his government might collapse if he allowed the creation of the prayer space and his partners pulled out of the coalition. The decision sparked an uproar outside Israel, especially among leaders of the Reform and Conservative Jewish movements in the United States. The issue was far less controversial among Israelis, who tend to either be observant or secular and do not affiliate in large numbers with the Reform or Conservative movements.

Zaključek

. there is no ancient Jewish tradition that designates the Western Wall as a sacred site. Instead, it was designated as a place of prayer less than five hundred years ago by a Muslim ruler. It took more than three centuries for the wall to attract the Jewish masses and, only in the last 150 years, has it become Judaism&rsquos most sacred site. Yet, even if this place was not intrinsically holy (let alone as holy as the Temple Mount), or even if it had not been so designated by Suleyman the Great, it has become sanctified over time as Jews have increasingly utilized it for prayer.

Viri: Yair Ettinger, &ldquoMore Than 150 Reform Rabbis Hold Mixed-gender Service at New Western Wall Prayer Space,&rdquo Haaretz (February 25, 2016).
Isabel Kershner, &ldquoIsrael Approves Prayer Space at Western Wall for Non-Orthodox Jews,&rdquo New York Times (January 31, 2016).
Isabel Kershner, &ldquoIsrael Suspends Plan for Egalitarian Prayer Area at Western Wall,&rdquo New York Times, (June 25, 2017).
Judy Maltz, &ldquoIsrael&rsquos High Court Sends Clear Message to Government: Reconsider &lsquoFrozen&rsquo Western Wall Deal,&rdquo Haaretz, (August 31, 2017).
F.M. Loewenberg, &ldquoIs the Western Wall Judaism's Holiest Site?&rdquo Middle East Quarterly, (Fall 2017).
Joseph Telushkin, Jewish Literacy: The Most Important Things to Know About the Jewish Religion, Its People and Its History, (NY: William Morrow and Co., 1991). Reprinted by permission of the author.
&ldquoWorkers in hazmat suits collect prayers from &lsquoGod's mailbox&rsquo in Jerusalem,&rdquo Reuters, (March 31, 2020).

Photo courtesy of Jack Hazut, J.H.M. Photography

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