Bojno polje Averasboro

Bojno polje Averasboro


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Bojno polje Averasboro v Severni Karolini je bilo mesto bitke pri Averasboroughu med kampanjami v Karolini ameriške državljanske vojne.

Zgodovina bojišča Averasboro

Bitka pri Averasboroughu je potekala 15. in 16. marca 1865. Del Carolinasove kampanje ameriške državljanske vojne je bitka pri Averasboroughu potekala med Unionistično vojsko Gruzije, ki jo je vodil generalmajor Henry W. Slocum, in vojsko Konfederacije, ki jo je vodil Generalpodpolkovnik William J. Hardee. Vojska Unije je pod vodstvom generala Shermana začela korakati proti severu - konfederati so hitro ukrepali, da bi poskušali zamuditi in poškodovati napredek vojske Unije proti severu.

Sherman se je odločil, da bo svoje čete razdelil pri reki Cape Fear, pri čemer bodo pripadniki pod vodstvom generala Slocuma šli preko Averasbora in Bentonvillea. Generalu Hardeeju je bilo ukazano, naj odloži Slocumove čete, da dovoli generalu Josephu E. Johnstonu, da zbere čete v bližnjem Bentonvilleu: to je storil tako, da jih je angažiral v bitki pri Averasboroughu.

Razpravlja se o tem, ali je Hardeeju uspelo odložiti vojsko Unije toliko časa, kot je zahteval. Na splošno je bitka pri Averasboroughu povzročila več kot tisoč žrtev, od tega 682 na strani Konfederacije in okoli petsto sindikalistov. Ker pa so bile sile Unije trikrat večje od konfederacijskih sil, mnogi menijo, da bi morale imeti zmagovito zmago.

Mnogi menijo, da je bitka podlaga za velik spopad v bitki pri Bentonvilleu, kmalu zatem, ki je bil zadnji večji spopad v zahodnoameriškem vojnem gledališču.

Bojno polje Averasboro danes

Bojno polje in spremljevalni muzej ter center za obiskovalce danes vodi komisija za bojišče Averasboro-neprofitna organizacija, ki je obnovila tudi bližnje pokopališče državljanske vojne Chicora. Spletno mesto je običajno odprto od torka do sobote, 10-3, čeprav je vredno preveriti vnaprej. Bodite pozorni na živo zgodovino in uprizoritve bitk, ki se izvajajo redno. Malo so luštni, a precej zabavni in zagotovo oživijo kraj.

Danes prihajamo na bojišče Averasboro

Averasboro je približno 45 minut južno od Raleigha in 25 minut severno od Fayettevillea na avtocesti I-95. Če prihajate iz Fayetteville, pojdite na izvoz 65 in se pomaknite na Highway 82 WEST, ki je slikovita pot skozi osrčje nekaterih najpomembnejših ozemelj iz državljanske vojne. Če prihajate iz Raleighha, pojdite na izvoz 73 pri Dunnu in sledite oznakam za bojišče in muzej.


Ljubitelji zgodovine si zapomnijo Averasboro, Bentonville kot zadnjo tribuno Konfederacije

Krvave bitke pri Averasborou in Bentonvilleu ob koncu državljanske vojne ne pritegnejo enake pozornosti kot tiste v Antietamu ali Gettysburgu.

Čeprav se je Averasboro izkazal kot uvod v večjo bitko pri Bentonvilleu, ki velja za zadnjo priložnost za Konfederacijo, sta bili to ločeni zaroki, ki sta se borili konec zime leta 1865 na vzhodu Severne Karoline.

V okviru iste operacije Konfederacije so bile bitke namenjene udarcem po vojski generala Williama T. Shermana v zadnji fazi neusmiljene kampanje poveljnika Unije skozi Karoline.

"Do takrat je Sherman naletel na zelo majhen odpor. Od padca Atlante do bitke pri Averasboro se dogaja le nekaj več kot spopadi," je povedal Mark Bradley, avtor več knjig, ki se osredotočajo na državljansko vojno v Severni Karolini. . "Mislim, da je pošteno reči, da so preveč samozavestni, še posebej tik pred Bentonvilleom. Tukaj je Johnstonova razrezana vojska in nenadoma obstaja nevarnost, ki bi jo lahko predstavljal Shermanovi kampanji v Karolini."

"Sherman lahko premaga Johnstona. Toda Shermanova vojska ni zdrobila Johnstonove vojske pri Bentonvilleu," je dejal Bradley. "Njegova vojska je preživela in 20. in 21. (marca 1865) je stal z veliko večjo vojsko. Čeprav ni odločilen boj, je vseeno pomemben."

Tehnično zmaga zvezne taktike je bila preambula Averasboro pravzaprav strateška zmaga Konfederacije. Jug, ki ga je bilo 3 proti 1, je dosegel primarni cilj, da vsaj za en dan odloži napredovanje levega krila Shermanovih čet.

Donny Taylor, ki je vodja zgodovinskega mesta na državnem zgodovinskem mestu Bentonville Battleground, je dejal, da so obiskovalci pogosto presenečeni nad obsegom obračuna v Bentonvilleu, približno 25 milj od Averasbora v okrožju Johnston.

"To je bil eden, če ne zadnji, kjer so konfederati dejansko izbrali bitko in bili agresor," je dejal. "Kar zadeva spremembo katerega koli izida vojne, to ni storilo. Moški v vrstah niso vedeli, da se bo vojne končalo. Vseeno je pokazalo, kako si konfederati prizadevajo, da bi opravili svojo dolžnost vojakov in se ustavili. prisotnost vojske, ki so jo imeli za napadalno. "

Ta mesec se priznava 150. obletnica teh dveh spopadov v državljanski vojni.

Zdi se, da je nekaj potomcev prvotnih družin, ki so živeli v bližini razgibanih bojišč Averasboro in Bentonville, še vedno naokoli. Toda nekateri, med njimi Gene Smith in Nelson Rose, so posredovali zgodbe o vojni in njenih posledicah.

Sledijo upodabljalci, ki hrepenijo po koncih tedna in priložnosti, da se oblečejo v volnene vojaške uniforme dneva in igrajo vloge v ponovno ustvarjenih terenskih bitkah 1860-ih.

"Mislim, da je to eden najzanimivejših časov v naši zgodovini," je dejal W.S. Jackson, 57-letni upodabljalec, ki živi v bližini Spiveyjevega kotička. "V šoli se tega ne učijo in ne učijo toliko, mnogim pa je vseeno."

Medtem ko lahko upodobi obe strani, se bo Jackson med obletnico obletnice v Bentonvilleu oblekel kot konfederacijo, kjer pričakujejo približno 3000 upodobitev.

"Zanima jih zgodovina. Državljanska vojna je bila prelomnica v zgodovini te države," je dejal Taylor. "Veliko jih je imelo prednike, ki so se borili na obeh straneh, kar je bil brat proti bratu. Tam je določena prijateljska zveza. Ste prijatelji iz vse države.

"Navezujete se na zgodovino tistega časa - manire, obleko. To povezujete z današnjo javnostjo."

Časi so se spremenili, odkar so med bitko pri Averasboru odmevali odmev iz topništva in streljanja.

Le ena od treh hiš pred antebellumom iz nekdaj 8300 hektarjev velikega nasada Smithville - Libanon - ostaja v lasti prvotne družine. Pred sodobnim domom, zgrajenim na delu bojišča, pred hišo iz nasada Oak Grove, ki se je sprva nahajala ob ulici Burnett Road, se vije ameriška zastava.

"Turisti in ljudje prihajajo ves čas. Če jih ne bi ustavil, bi prišli kar skozi vhodna vrata," je dejal Ron Lewis, ki je dom Oak Grove kupil pred približno šestimi leti, preden se je preselil čez Burnett Road.

Ta podeželski žep ob okrožni liniji Cumberland-Harnett ostaja dobro ohranjen in daleč stran od razvoja.

"To je čudovito mesto," je dejal Wade Sokolosky, ki je soavtor knjige "No Take Army Army of the Day of Julius Caesar - Sherman's Carolina Campaina: From Fayetteville to Averasboro."

"Ljudje lahko gredo tja v mirnem jutru in čutiš bitko," je dejal.

Ostanki spopada so ostali.

Nedaleč od muzeja bojišča je pokopališče Chicora, zadnje počivališče 56 vojakov Konfederacije.

Še vedno so vidne luknje topovskih krogel in mesta, kjer so potepuške krogle prebodle srčni bor hiše nasada Oak Grove. Strukturne poškodbe - vključno z delom ročno tesanega žarka v podstrešju, ki so ga odrezale topovska krogla in skoraj popoln krog iz druge topovske krogle na nasprotni steni - so ostale iz bitke pri Averasboro 15. in 16. marca , 1865.

Bitka se je vodila po treh linijah v severnem okrožju Cumberland in južnem okrožju Harnett, pri ozkem grlu, ki sta ga tvorila reki Cape Fear in Black. Računi so različni, vendar je Sever pri Averasborou utrpel 682 izgub, od tega 533 vojakov, ki so bili ranjeni, jug je dosegel 500 izgub, ne da bi zapisali, koliko jih je bilo ranjenih.

V pismu z dne 12. , zaradi česar je moj dom včasih zelo neprijeten. "

Mlada ženska je živela na plantaži Smithville, danes bolj znani kot Libanon.

Gene Smith, upokojeni višji uredniški pisatelj za The Fayetteville Observer, je večino svojega življenja preživel v hiši v Libanonu. Je zgodnji primer grške preporodne arhitekture in prva posest okrožja Harnett, uvrščena v nacionalni register zgodovinskih krajev.

Družina Smith je bila lastnica in stanovanje doma od njegove izgradnje leta 1824 kot poročno darilo.

Nekateri predniki Genea Smitha so bili priča grozotam spora v državljanski vojni, saj se je razširjena družina Smith stiskala v zgornji sobi hiše, potem ko so jo spremenili v bolnišnico za ranjence Konfederacije. Za poškodovane so uporabljali hleve, gospodarska poslopja in lope.

Mize, postavljene pod senčnimi drevesi, so bile uporabljene za amputacijo okončin.

"Tu je umrlo veliko ljudi," je dejal 67 -letni Smith in varuh svoje družinske zgodovine. "To je bila ambulanta in operacijo so opravili na prostem pod gospodarskimi poslopji. Bolnike so imeli v zaprtih prostorih."

Lewis se spominja, da se je tik pred Godwinom vozil vzdolž N.C. 82 in videl veličastni Oak Grove, ki je takrat stal približno 200 metrov od ceste. Obožuje zgodovino in se zaljubil v to oddaljeno območje in njegovo povezavo z zgodovino ZDA.

"Imeti dom, ki je bil pomemben del državljanske vojne - pravzaprav mi je v čast imeti nekaj takega," je dejal 49 -letni Lewis, ki živi v bližnjem Eastoverju in namerava prazen Oak Grove spremeniti v muzej. "Ta hiša je bila med državljansko vojno operacijska dvorana. Ljudska kri je bila po vsem tem lesenem tleh."

Na spodnjem nadstropju hrastovega trdega lesa v eni od ducat sob Oak Grove ostajajo madeži. Lewis je povedal, da sta bili dve bitki uporabljeni za operacijo med bitko, madeži pa so iz krvi ranjencev in umirajočih.

Medtem ko je bil Libanon preoblikovan v konfederacijsko terensko bolnišnico, dom Williama T. Smitha leta 1865 pa je služil kot zvezna terenska bolnišnica, je bil Oak Grove uporabljen kot bolnišnica konfederacije, kjer so po naštetih virih na kratko zdravili ranjence z obeh strani.

"Sherman in njegove čete so prišli v to hišo," je dejal Lewis. "Družino so izgnali in pred odhodom v (Libanon) ostali v grapi. Vse so pograbili. Nato so požgali pohištvo."

Bitka pri Averasborou, kot je poudaril Smith, ni potekala v Averasborou.

Bitka je potekala na plantaži Smithville, ki so jo sestavljali trije manjši nasadi, ki so bili vsi v lasti Johna Smitha.

Averasboro (pogosto napisano kot Averasborough), nekoč tretje največje mesto na reki Cape Fear za Wilmingtonom in Fayettevilleom, ne obstaja več. Ustanovljeno pred vojno za neodvisnost je služilo kot ključno postajališče za popotnike in čolnarje po odrski cesti.

Igrišče za golf Chicora je bilo zgrajeno tam, kjer je mesto nekoč uspevalo.

"Bil je dovolj velik, da so ga za morebitno lokacijo obravnavali kot (državno) prestolnico," je dejal Smith.

Konfederati so uprizorili bitko pri Averasboru, da bi ustavili čete Unije, in izkazalo se je, da je dobro načrtovana in dobro izvedena. Nekateri dolgoletni poročila pa postavljajo vprašanje, ali je konflikt sploh mogoče šteti za bitko. Zavrnili so ga kot taktični spopad, odložilno dejanje.

Ima tudi številna imena, kot sta bitka pri Black River in bitka za Smithville.

"Ni dobro razumljeno," je dejal Smith, ki živi z ženo Sherry v libanonskem domu na severnem koncu bojišča. "Če sodiš o bitki po tem, kar so poskušali narediti, so to storili Rebi. Če sodimo po številu žrtev, je bila to zagotovo bitka. Tu je bilo ubitih več kot 1.000, ne da bi pri tem upoštevali poškodovane in pogrešane . "

Boj pri Averasborou je tri dni kasneje pripeljal do bitke pri Bentonvilleu, ene zadnjih zadnjih bitk državljanske vojne in največje bitke, ki se je kdajkoli odigrala na tleh Severne Karoline.

"Bitka pri Averasboru je bila pri tem pomembna igra. To ni bil zgolj nekakšen naključni dogodek, ko so prišle enote Unije," je dejal Walt Smith, nekdanji podpredsednik komisije za bojišče Averasboro, katere predniki so živeli v Williamu T. Smithov nasad.

Smith je pripovedoval, da so se tehnično spopadi začeli okoli doma Williama T. Smitha na južnem koncu bojišča. To je več kot dve milji južno od libanonskega posestva.

"Bilo je mokro, hladno in deževno," je dejal. "Utapljali so se v blatu."

Južne čete pod vodstvom generala Williama G. Hardeeja - vojaki iz Južne Karoline, Gruzije in Floride - so v času spora v Averasboru padle pod splošno poveljstvo generala Josepha Johnstona. Johnston je med kampanjo generala Unije v Karolini iskal prostor za udar na Shermanovo vojsko.

Po spopadu na Monroejevem razpotju na današnjem Fort Braggu in po padcu Fayettevillea na Shermanove čete so Hardeejevi konfederati požgali most Clarendon na poti iz Fayettevillea, preden so postavili obrambno ureditev na plantaži Smithville.

Tam, južno od Averasbora, je Johnston videl priložnost.

Izvedel je, da Shermanova 60.000 vojaška vojska potuje v dveh krilih, med njimi pa dober dan marša. In videl je, da bi lahko odložil levo krilo pri Averasborou. Johnston je želel, da bi Hardeejeve čete zadrževale Shermanovo napredovanje, da bi lahko v Bentonvilleu koncentriral svoje skupne razpoložljive sile približno 20.000 mož in fantov.

Z vidika Konfederacije je Averasboro pomemben za mesto, kjer se je Hardee odločil zavzeti stališče, je dejal Sokolosky, pisatelj in strokovnjak.

"Njegova vojska je v bistvu zasenčila Shermanovo vojsko, ki je prihajala skozi Južno Karolino," je dejal. "Sprva je Hardeejeva vojska začela s približno 12.000 vojaki. Ko Hardee doseže Fayetteville, se njegova vojska zmanjša na približno 6.500 do 7.000."

Kljub kvotam je Averasboro Johnstonu omogočil čas, da organizira svoj strateški napad za bitko pri Bentonvilleu, kjer je presenetil Shermanov 14. korpus.

To je konfederatom dalo "nekakšno okrepitev morale", je dejal Sokolosky, medtem ko je - kar je še pomembneje - združenim silam Johnstona in Hardeeja dalo bojno priložnost pri Bentonvilleu.

"Brez Averasbora," je dejal pisatelj državljanske vojne in zgodovinar Bradley, "Bentonville res ne bo mogoč."

Shermanova in Johnstonova vojska sta se že srečali na bojišču - v Shilohu, Vicksburgu in Atlanti.

Po informacijah, objavljenih na državnem zgodovinskem mestu Bentonville Battlefield, so veterani bitke pri Bentonvilleu kasneje rekli, da so bili boji tako intenzivni, hudi in uničujoči kot bitke pri Gettysburgu ali okoli Atlante.

Med bitko, uprizorjeno od 19. do 21. marca 1865, je bilo ubitih, ranjenih ali pogrešanih okoli 4.100 mož. Rečeno je bilo, da je strel tako močan, da je z borovcev odtrgal nekaj metrov lubja. Preživeli so odprli torbe, da bi našli moko, nasoljeno z drobci.

V Bentonvilleu so uporniki utrpeli najhujše žrtve, ko je Konfederacija propadala in vojna se je bližala koncu. Zgodovinsko gledano je bil to edini večji poskus ustavitve napredka Shermanove vojske po padcu Savane.

"Tukaj smo tri tedne, preden se Jug preda, in imamo moške, ki se borijo za življenje v Bentonvilleu," je dejal Bradley, avtor knjige "Last Stand in the Carolinas: The Battle for Bentonville".

"Kot da igra še ni končana. Kot konfederati niso izgubili," je dejal. "Zame je neverjetno, da se moški še vedno borijo, kot da je vojna še vedno v dvomih. To se mi zdi tako fascinantno v tej bitki. Še vedno so se borili z enako odločnostjo in predanostjo, kot da bi bila to zgodnja bitka, ki bi lahko določila izid vojna.

"Sodišče Appomattox se zgodi le tri tedne kasneje."

Nelson Rose in njegova žena Ann živita v dvonadstropni kmečki hiši na 8 hektarjih bojišča v Bentonvilleu. Prvi dan bitke je potekal na njihovi zemlji, kar je ostalo od vrste zaraščenih zemeljskih del Konfederacije, je še vedno na posestvu.

"Ko sva se poročila, me je nosil čez vejo," je rekla Ann Rose iz njihove dnevne sobe. "To je bil pravi rov. Bili so prvotni prsi, neokrnjeni iz državljanske vojne."

Spomnila se je, kako je Rosein oče, Charlie Nelson Rose, njihovemu najstarejšemu sinu, pokojnemu Barrettu Roseu povedal, da lahko, ko greste na to posvečeno zemljo, slišite vojake, ki se pogovarjajo.

"Samo zajebal se je z njim," je dejal Nelson Rose.

Rose je postala polnoletna na bojišču, saj je dobro vedela, kaj se je med vojno dogajalo v Bentonvilleu. Dva njegova prednika, William Bright Cole in William Nicholas Rose, sta se borila za jug.

Ta upokojeni vodja Komisije za varnost zaposlovanja je po očetovi strani neposredno povezan s plantažo Willisa Cola, ki ga je general Konfederacije Wade Hampton izbral kot idealno lokacijo za ustavitev napredovanja Unije.

Cole je njegov praprapraded.

"Ko ste odraščali na bojišču v petdesetih in šestdesetih letih, ko ste okopavali in pleveli, bi na tleh našli artefakte," je dejal. "Ker so tla obdelovala in deževalo, bi se sami dvignili in sedeli tam."

V preteklih letih je starejši Rose nabral majhno vitrino v vrednosti vojnih artefaktov s svojega kmetijskega zemljišča, vključno z zaponkami, kroglami, kroglicami Minie, gumbi, kovanci in drobci pušk.

Njegova družina je prodala približno 250 hektarjev neprofitni organizaciji Civil War Preservation Trust, namenjeni reševanju krajev, kjer se je Sever boril proti jugu. Po drugi strani se lastnina prenese na državo.

"Zemlja ne bo nikoli prodana. To je zgodovina," je dejala njegova žena. "Sedimo pri zgodovini."

Bitka pri Bentonvilleu je trajala tri dni, nato pa je Johnston popustil Shermanovi vojski. Umaknil je uničene čete in se umaknil v Smithfield.

"Večina je rekla, da je bil Johnston zadnji poskus, da bi združil vse konfederate in poskušal ustaviti Shermana," je dejal Rose. "Združiti tako izčrpano vojsko proti izkušenim, dobro oskrbljenim logističnim silam, kot je Sherman, je bil nekakšen zadnji korak. Zato so šli v Smithfield, Raleigh, Bennett Place in se predali takoj, ko se je Lee predal Grantu. "


Zgodovina

Lepo se je sprehodilo po ozemlju, tudi muzej je bil odličen. Veliko več zgodovine naokoli, pokopališča, cerkev Old Bluff, marsikaj tudi videti.

Kako lepo območje in zelo dobro izdelan muzej. Bilo nam je všeč! Prišel je na deževen dan, ki ga je večina notri. Prostovoljci so zelo dobro obveščeni in z veseljem odgovarjajo na vprašanja.

Brezplačen muzej z veliko trgovino s spominki. Trgovina ponuja 10% vojaški popust. Bojišče se nahaja približno 4 milje od meddržave.

Na poti v Lillington sem se odločil, da se ustavim .. odlične informacije in ljudje so bili zelo prijazni. Dober kraj za ustavitev zgodovine.

V muzeju v Averasboru smo se pogovarjali z osebjem. Medtem ko so bili ljudje prostovoljci, so bili zelo dobro obveščeni o bitki in bitki pri Bentonvilleu. Zbirka v muzeju je bila zelo dobra. Vredno se je ustaviti


Zgodovina in kultura

Ljudje Moški v uniformi, ki so služili v bitki pri Gettysburgu, in civilisti, ki jim je ta grozni dogodek za vedno spremenil življenje.

Zbirke Oglejte si nekaj predmetov v naši zbirki, povezanih z bitko pri Gettysburgu.

Raziskave Pisarne v Nacionalnem vojaškem parku Gettysburg, kjer se hranijo zgodovinski zapisi.

GETTYSBURGSKA BITKA

Bitka pri Gettysburgu, ki se je borila v prvih treh dneh julija 1863, je bila ena najpomembnejših bitk državljanske vojne. Usoda naroda je dobesedno visela na tleh tistega poletja 1863, ko je general Robert E. Lee, ki je poveljeval "vojski Severne Virginije", svojo vojsko popeljal proti severu v Maryland in Pennsylvanijo in vojno pripeljal neposredno na severno ozemlje. Zveza & "Vojska Potomaca", ki ji je poveljeval generalmajor George Gordon Meade, se je srečala z invazijo Konfederacije v bližini križišča v mestu Pennsylvania, Gettysburg, in to, kar se je začelo kot naključno srečanje, se je hitro spremenilo v obupan, divji boj. Kljub začetnim uspehom Konfederacije se je bitka 3. julija obrnila proti Leeju in z nekaj preostalimi možnostmi je ukazal, naj se njegova vojska vrne v Virginijo. Zmaga Unije v bitki pri Gettysburgu, ki jo včasih imenujejo tudi »znak visoke vode upora«, ni povzročila le Leejevega umika v Virginijo, ampak tudi konec upanj konfederativnih držav Amerike na neodvisnost.

Kirurgija v kampu Letterman.

Bitka je prebivalcem Gettysburga prinesla pustošenje. Vsako kmetijsko polje ali vrt je bilo pokopališče. Cerkve, javne zgradbe in celo zasebni domovi so bile bolnišnice, napolnjene z ranjenimi vojaki. Zdravstveno osebje Unije, ki je ostalo, je bilo prisiljeno zdraviti toliko ranjencev, razpršenih po okrožju. Da bi zadovoljili povpraševanje, je bila vzhodno od Gettysburga ustanovljena splošna bolnišnica Camp Letterman, kamor so vse ranjence na koncu odpeljali, preden so jih prepeljali v stalne bolnišnice v Philadelphiji, Baltimoru in Washingtonu. Sindikalni kirurgi so sodelovali s člani ameriške sanitarne komisije in krščanske komisije pri zdravljenju in oskrbi več kot 20.000 poškodovanih vojakov Unije in Konfederacije, ki so šli skozi bolnišnične oddelke, nameščene pod velikimi šotori. Januarja 1864 so zadnji bolniki odšli, pa tudi kirurgi, stražarji, medicinske sestre, šotori in kuhalnice. Le začasno pokopališče na pobočju je ostalo kot dokaz pogumne bitke za reševanje življenj, ki je potekala v kampu Letterman.

Spomenik vojakom v središču vojaškega narodnega pokopališča v Gettysburgu.

Ugledni prebivalci Gettysburga so postali zaskrbljeni zaradi slabega stanja vojaških grobov, raztresenih po bojišču in na bolnišničnih lokacijah, in zaprosili guvernerja Pensilvanije Andrewa Curtina za državno podporo za nakup dela bojišča, ki naj bi bil namenjen za zadnje počivališče zagovorniki zveze Unije. Gettysburški odvetnik David Wills je bil imenovan za državnega agenta za koordinacijo ustanovitve novega "vojaškega nacionalnega pokopališča", ki ga je zasnoval znani krajinski arhitekt William Saunders. Odstranitev Unije mrtvih na pokopališče se je začela jeseni 1863, vendar bo končana šele dolgo po tem, ko je bilo pokopališče posvečeno 19. novembra 1863. Na slovesnosti je bil govornik Edward Everett in je vključeval slovesne molitve, pesmi, pise. počasti moške, ki so umrli v Gettysburgu. Vendar je bil predsednik Abraham Lincoln tisti, ki je v svojem dvominutnem nagovoru izrazil najpomembnejše besede, v katerih je pohvalil vojake Unije, pokopane v Gettysburgu, in navzoče spomnil na njihovo žrtvovanje za zadevo Unije, da bi morali obnoviti svojo predanost " vzrok, za katerega so dali zadnjo mero predanosti. "

Vhod v park leta 1900.

Leta 1864 je skupina zaskrbljenih državljanov ustanovila spominsko združenje Gettysburg Battlefield, katerega namen je bil ohraniti dele bojišča kot spomin na vojsko Unije, ki se je tu borila. GBMA je leta 1895 svojo zemljiško posest prenesla na zvezno vlado, ki je Gettysburg označila za nacionalni vojaški park. Zvezna komisija veteranov državljanske vojne je nadzirala razvoj parka kot spomenik obema vojskama tako, da je identificirala in označila bojne črte. Uprava parka je bila leta 1933 prenesena na Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve, Službo narodnih parkov, ki nadaljuje s svojim poslanstvom varovati, ohranjati in razlagati bitko pri Gettysburgu in naslov Gettysburg obiskovalcem parka.

ČAROLA CIVILNE VOJNE - Glavni dogodki državljanske vojne od 1861 do 1865.

Iskanje prednika državljanske vojne - naši predlogi, kako raziskati ozadje prednika, ki je morda služil med državljansko vojno.

POTOVANJE PO SKLOPLJENEM TLU - Raziščite živahne pokrajine in zgodovinska mesta na zgodovinskem hodniku od Gettysburga v Pensilvaniji do Monticella v Virginiji!


Neverjetne relikvije vzhodne fronte

Nemčija in Rusija sta zaradi prve svetovne vojne izgubili velik del svojega ozemlja, čeprav je Rusija najbolj trpela. Rusija je leta 1918 sklenila mir z Nemčijo na račun Poljske, Litve, Estonije, Latvije in Finske. Po vojni so te dežele postale neodvisne države. Ko so Nemčijo porazili zavezniki, je bila prisiljena del Prusije dati novonastali republiki Poljski.

Po vojni sta si nacistična Nemčija in ruska vlada želeli vrniti svoja ozemlja, kar je pomenilo uničenje Poljske. Čeprav sta se nemška fašistična in ruska komunistična vlada sovražili, sta se avgusta 1939 dogovorili o Poljski. Pakt Molotov-Ribbentrop, ki je dobil ime po diplomatih, ki so se o njem pogajali, se je strinjal, da nobena od držav ne bo napadala druge deset let. V sporazumu je bila tudi skrivna klavzula, ki je Poljsko razdelila med Rusijo in Nemčijo. Nemčija se je strinjala, da bi morala Rusija imeti vse ozemlje, ki ga je izgubila v prvi svetovni vojni.

Septembra 1939 je Hitler napadel Poljsko. Ko je Nemčija napredovala na Poljsko z zahoda, je Rusija vdrla z vzhoda.

Junija 1941 je Nemčija prekinila pakt Molotov-Ribbentrop in napadla Rusijo. Kolosalni boj med tema dvema velikima silama je trajal do maja 1945. To je bil eden največjih, najbolj krvavih in najbolj uničujočih dogodkov v zgodovini. Čeprav je bilo nekaj časa videti, kot da bi Rusi lahko bili poraženi, so Nemce nazadnje potisnili nazaj, vse do Berlina.

Spraševati se je treba, če bi se vsej tej grozoti lahko izognili, če bi voditelji sveta bili pozorni na besede Adolfa Hitlerja. Bil je precej odkrit glede svojih namenov. 11. avgusta 1939 je povedal komisarju Društva narodov Carlu Burkhardtu, vse, kar se zavežem, je usmerjeno proti Rusom. Če je Zahod preveč neumen in slep, da bi to dojel, bom prisiljen doseči dogovor z Rusi, premagati Zahod in se potem po njihovem porazu z vsemi silami obrniti proti Sovjetski zvezi. Ukrajino potrebujem, da nas ne morejo stradati, kot se je zgodilo v zadnji vojni. ’

Kot vsi vemo, je bila vzhodna fronta velikansko bojišče in ne preseneča glede količine ali relikvij, izgubljenih in pokopanih na tem bojišču. Spodnje slike so le ‘few ’ s Facebook strani Duhovi vzhodne fronte. Vedno se razpravlja o kopanju bojišč in to se bo nadaljevalo večno. Če ste zbiratelj, lahko relikvije kupite na njihovi spletni strani www.kurlandmilitaria.com

Na slikah ni napisov, saj menimo, da jih ne potrebujejo. Slika naslika tisoč besed … … ….

Obe sili sta napadli in razdelili Poljsko leta 1939. Potem ko je Finska zavrnila pogoje sovjetskega pakta o medsebojni pomoči, je Sovjetska zveza 30. novembra 1939 napadla Finsko v tako imenovani zimski vojni - hud spopad, ki je povzročil mirovno pogodbo 13. marca 1940, ko je Finska ohranila neodvisnost, izgubila pa je dele vzhodne Karelije. Junija 1940 je Sovjetska zveza zasedla in nezakonito pripojila tri baltske države-s tem je kršila Haaške konvencije (1899 in 1907) ter številne dvostranske konvencije in pogodbe, podpisane med Sovjetsko zvezo in Baltikom. Večina zahodnih držav ni nikoli priznala priključkov.

Pakt Molotov – Ribbentrop je domnevno zagotovil varnost Sovjetom pri okupaciji Baltika ter severovzhodne in severovzhodne regije Romunije (Severna Bukovina in Besarabija), čeprav je Hitler ob napovedi invazije na Sovjetsko zvezo navedel sovjetske priključitve Baltika. in romunsko ozemlje kršilo razumevanje pakta Nemčije. Priključeno romunsko ozemlje je bilo razdeljeno med ukrajinsko in moldavsko sovjetsko republiko.

Konec vojne: april – maj 1945

Sovjetom je preostalo le še začeti ofenzivo za zavzetje osrednje Nemčije (ki bo po vojni sčasoma postala Vzhodna Nemčija). Sovjetska ofenziva je imela dva cilja. Zaradi suma Stalina o namerah zahodnih zaveznikov, da predajo ozemlje, ki so ga zasedli na povojnem sovjetskem okupacijskem območju, naj bi bila ofenziva na široki fronti in se je morala čim hitreje premakniti na zahod , da bi se čim bolj zahodno srečali z zahodnimi zavezniki. Toda glavni cilj je bil zavzeti Berlin. Oba sta se dopolnjevala, ker posesti območja ni bilo mogoče hitro osvojiti, razen če ne zavzamejo Berlina. Drugi pomislek je bil, da ima Berlin sam strateška sredstva, vključno z Adolfom Hitlerjem in delom nemškega programa za atomsko bombo.

Ofenziva za zajem osrednje Nemčije in Berlina se je začela 16. aprila z napadom na nemško frontno črto na rekah Oder in Neisse. Po večdnevnih težkih bojih sta sovjetska 1BF in 1UF prebila luknje skozi nemško frontno črto in razpihovala po osrednji Nemčiji. Do 24. aprila so elementi 1BF in 1UF končali obkrožitev nemške prestolnice in bitka pri Berlinu je vstopila v zadnjo fazo. 25. aprila je 2BF prebil črto nemške 3. tankovske vojske južno od Stettina. Zdaj so se lahko prosto gibali proti zahodu proti britanski 21. skupini vojakov in proti severu proti baltskemu pristanišču Stralsund. 58. gardijska strelska divizija 5. gardijske armade je vzpostavila stik z 69. pehotno divizijo prve vojske ZDA pri nemškem Torgauu pri reki Elbi.

29. in 30. aprila, ko so se sovjetske sile borile proti središču Berlina, se je Adolf Hitler poročil z Evo Braun in nato storil samomor, tako da je vzel cianid in se ustrelil. Helmuth Weidling, poveljnik obrambe Berlina, je mesto 2. maja predal Sovjetom. Berlinska operacija (16. april - 2. maj) je Rdečo armado skupaj stala 361.367 žrtev (mrtvih, ranjenih, pogrešanih in bolnih) ter 1.977 tankov in jurišnih pušk. Nemških izgub v tem vojnem obdobju je še vedno nemogoče zanesljivo določiti.


Averasboro

Do sredine marca 1865 je generalmajor William T. Sherman svojo vojsko preselil v Severno Karolino v zasledovanje konfederatov generala Josepha E. Johnstona. Odkar se je od svojega pohoda proti morju obrnil proti severu, je Sherman naletel na majhen upor Konfederacije, ko se je preselil, da bi Johnstonovi vojski preprečil, da bi se pridružila vojski Roberta E. Leeja v Virginiji. Dve krili Shermanove vojske sta popotovali po severu po vzporednih poteh, levo proti prestolnici države v Raleighu in desno proti cestnemu križišču pri Goldsborou.

15. marca popoldne je Shermanov konjeniški zaslon pod Brigom. General Lieson Judson Kilpatrick je nastopil proti Lieutu. Korpus generala Williama Hardeeja, ki ga sestavlja Brig. Generala Williama B. Taliaferra in mag. Pehotne divizije generala Lafayette McLawa in konjenica generalmajorja Josepha Wheelerja. The Confederates were deployed across the Raleigh Road near Averasboro, 40 miles south of Raleigh. Hardee was the pre-war Commandant of Cadets at West Point and author of "Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics," the definitive combat manual carried by soldiers in both armies. His orders were to delay Sherman’s 25,000-man left wing under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum so that Johnston could consolidate his remaining forces to defend the road networks connecting Raleigh and Goldsboro. Hardee posted his 6,000-man corps in a well-chosen position astride the road, with the Cape Fear River anchoring his right flank and the Black River swamps to the east anchoring his left.

After feeling out the Confederate defenses, Kilpatrick withdrew and called for infantry support. During the night, two divisions of the XX Corps under Brig. Gen. Alpheus S. Williams from Slocum's wing arrived to confront Hardee’s men arrayed across the plantation of the John C. Smith family. At dawn on March 16, Williams’ infantry advanced against McLaws’ division on the Confederate left and drove back the rebel skirmishers, but was stopped by the main Confederate line and a sharp counterattack. Around mid-morning, Williams renewed his advance with reinforcements on his left and drove Taliaferro’s Confederates from two lines of works, but was repulsed at a third line of defenders. Late that afternoon, two divisions from the Union XIV Corps under Maj. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, also from Slocum’s army wing, arrived on the field and attempted to flank the Confederate right where they were stopped with significant casualties by Wheeler's dismounted cavalry. Sporadic fighting continued into the evening with little result. Around 8:30 pm, Hardee withdrew from the battlefield and retreated north toward Smithfield, leaving his campfires burning to conceal his departure.

Despite being outnumbered nearly four to one, Hardee’s one-day delay of Sherman’s force was successful. Losses for both sides were about even. Hardee bought time for Johnston to consolidate his army near Bentonville where both sides would fight again three days later.


Averasboro Battlefield - History

On March 15th the left wing of General Sherman’s Union army, commanded by General H. W. Slocum, was advancing from Fayetteville to Averasboro. General H. J. Kilpatrick’s cavalry division was in the lead, skirmishing with General Joseph Wheeler’s Confederate cavalry which contested the Union advance. (See also Battle of Averasboro: A History .)

At 3:00 P.M. the Union forces struck a heavy Confederate skirmish line. General Smith Atkins’ 9th Michigan cavalry drove the skirmishers back into the first of three lines of breastworks erected across the road. The Union cavalry then constructed heavy barricades in front of the Confederate works.

At 6:00 P.M. Confederate General W. B. Taliaferro, whose division was holding position, ordered an attack along his line. The Union forces, though hard-pressed, were able to hold their position due to the arrival of reinforcements from the 14th Corps. Nightfall found the two armies in nearly the same positions they had held throughout the afternoon. General W. T. Sherman, Union commander, arrived on the field during the night.

At 11:00 A.M. two newly-arrived Union brigades engaged the Confederates in front, while the brigade of Colonel Henry Case assaulted the Confederate right flank. This attack forced the Confederates to withdraw into their second line of works.

Civil War Battle of Averasboro

(Zgodovinski označevalec)

General W. B. Taliaferro decided to abandon the Confederate second position after finding his men in danger of being flanked. At 1:00 P.M. he withdrew to the third and final line of earthworks, where he was assisted by McLaw’s division on his left and Wheeler’s dismounted cavalry on his right. Rhett’s disorganized brigade was held in general reserve.

The Union forces soon advanced and established a strong line immediately in front of the Confederate third line. From this new position they pressed the Confederates all afternoon and part of the evening, but were unable to break the line. At 8:00 P.M. General W. J. Hardee, commanding the Confederate forces at Averasboro, having accomplished his objectives, began withdrawing his corps along the Smithfield road. Wheeler’s cavalry was left behind to cover the retreat. By 4:00 A.M. on March 17th, all Confederate units had been withdrawn leaving the Union forces in control.

John Smith House at Oak Grove (present-day)

Present-day John Smith House at Oak Grove

Recommended Reading : NO SUCH ARMY SINCE THE DAYS OF JULIUS CAESAR: Sherman 's Carolinas Campaign from Fayetteville to Averasboro (Discovering Civil War America ). Description: General William T. Sherman's 1865 Carolinas Campaign receives scant attention from most Civil War historians, largely because it was overshadowed by the Army of Northern Virginia's final campaign against the Army of the Potomac . However, a careful examination of this campaign indicates that few armies in all of military history accomplished more under more adverse conditions than did Sherman 's. Nadaljevanje spodaj …

Mark A. Smith and Wade Sokolosky, both career military officers, lend their professional eye to the critical but often overlooked run-up to the seminal Battle of Bentonville, covering March 11-16, 1865. Beginning with the capture of Fayetteville and the demolition of its Arsenal, Smith and Sokolosky chronicle the Battle of Averasboro in greater detail than ever tackled before in this, the third volume of Ironclad's "The Discovering Civil War America Series." In the two-day fight at Averasboro, Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's Corps conducted a brilliantly planned and well-executed defense in depth that held Sherman 's juggernaut in check for two full days. Having accomplished his objective, Hardee then broke off and disengaged. This delay permitted General Joseph E. Johnston to concentrate his forces in preparation for what became the Battle of Bentonville. The book includes new maps, abundant illustrations, and a detailed driving and walking tour for dedicated battlefield stompers.

Recommended Reading : On Sherman 's Trail: The Civil War's North Carolina Climax. Description: Join journalist and historian Jim Wise as he follows Sherman 's last march through the Tar Heel State from Wilson 's Store to the surrender at Bennett Place . Retrace the steps of the soldiers at Averasboro and Bentonville. Learn about what the civilians faced as the Northern army approached and view the modern landscape through their eyes. Whether you are on the road or in a comfortable armchair, you will enjoy this memorable, well-researched account of General Sherman's North Carolina campaign and the brave men and women who stood in his path.

Recommended Reading : Sherman 's March Through the Carolinas . Description: In retrospect, General William Tecumseh Sherman considered his march through the Carolinas the greatest of his military feats, greater even than the Georgia campaign. When he set out northward from Savannah with 60,000 veteran soldiers in January 1865, he was more convinced than ever that the bold application of his ideas of total war could speedily end the conflict. Nadaljevanje spodaj …

John Barrett's story of what happened in the three months that followed is based on printed memoirs and documentary records of those who fought and of the civilians who lived in the path of Sherman 's onslaught. The burning of Columbia, the battle of Bentonville, and Joseph E. Johnston's surrender nine days after Appomattox are at the center of the story, but Barrett also focuses on other aspects of the campaign, such as the undisciplined pillaging of the 'bummers,' and on its effects on local populations. About the Author: John G. Barrett is professor emeritus of history at the Virginia Military Institute. He is author of several books, including The Civil War in North Carolina , and coeditor of North Carolina Civil War Documentary.

Recommended Reading : The Battle Of Bentonville: Last Stand In The Carolinas , by Mark L. Bradley (Hardcover). Description: Mark L. Bradley's book could not have come at a more proper time. The terrible fighting that took place in the fields of North Carolina in March of 1865 has been long forgotten thankfully, Mr. Bradley has reminded us of the sacrifices that our ancestors endured on that sacred ground. Bentonville is a stirring reminder of the American spirit. something that was exhibited on both sides of the lines during those fateful three days in March. Mr. Bradley has written a stirring tribute to the two armies that fought in this last great battle that pitted the forces of "Uncle Billy" Sherman , against his old nemesis "Old Joe" Johnston . Nadaljevanje spodaj …

Mr. Bradley has written an outstanding account of the soldiers who fought this landmark battle in the waning days of the war, and he has given us a thorough look at what was going on in the minds of the Generals who led their soldiers to the killing fields of Bentonville. Bradley has also included an outstanding photo collection of the battlefield as it appears today, something that is rarely added to most of the narratives on Civil War battles. These photos give us an understanding of the terrain that each man, Union or Confederate, faced on those days in March 1865. I heartily recommend this narrative to all students of the Civil War. The Battle of Bentonville has been neglected too long. Thankfully, Mr. Bradley has corrected that mistake, and he has provided us buffs with a truly compelling story. Special appreciation is due to Mark A. Moore. Mr. Moore's maps of the campaign are outstanding, and they help the reader understand and comprehend the many troop movements of this last major battle of the Civil War in the Eastern Theater.

Recommended Reading : Sherman 's March: The First Full-Length Narrative of General William T. Sherman's Devastating March through Georgia and the Carolinas . Description: Sherman 's March is the vivid narrative of General William T. Sherman's devastating sweep through Georgia and the Carolinas in the closing days of the Civil War. Weaving together hundreds of eyewitness stories, Burke Davis graphically brings to life the dramatic experiences of the 65,000 Federal troops who plundered their way through the South and those of the anguished -- and often defiant -- Confederate women and men who sought to protect themselves and their family treasures, usually in vain. Dominating these events is the general himself -- "Uncle Billy" to his troops, the devil incarnate to the Southerners he encountered.


Averasboro Battlefield & Museum

Under his most recent executive order, Governor Roy Cooper has lifted all capacity limits, social distancing requirements and most mask mandates for the entire state. However, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services recommends that people still wear a mask if they are in a large crowd or not vaccinated.

If traveling, individuals are encouraged to check with local tourism organizations to determine if any limitations are still in place (e.g., visitor center closures), and to contact lodging establishments directly for their most up-to-date information.

More information about local restaurant resources specific to North Carolina destinations can be found via their local tourism organization, which can be found here. Visit Count On Me NC to see a list of businesses – restaurants, lodging, attractions and others – that have completed the Count On Me NC training, as these businesses are making a concerted effort to help keep everyone safe and healthy. As a guest, you can take your own pledge, too, to show you're doing your part.

In March 1865, the Battle of Averasboro was the first deliberate, tactical resistance to the infamous march of Federal forces through the Carolinas and Georgia. Come experience history through our displays of artifacts, facts, maps and much more. Explore the grounds to learn more about what took place on this hallowed ground.
Outside, historic markers outline the events of March 1865 military action, the prelude to Bentonville. The museum outlines the conflict and contains artifacts from the battle found on the battlefield.

Annual living history events and reenactments are held here, too, so please check our website for upcoming events.


William T. Smith House

ARCHITECTURAL DREAM STEEPED IN HISTORY! Stately 1835 Federal house with exquisite woodwork once served as a Civil War field hospital. Rural two-acre setting belies its close proximity to Fayetteville, Research Triangle, and RDU International Airport in the 5th most populated county in North Carolina.

Virtual Tour available here.

The William T. Smith House is one of three Smith family plantations that all served as field hospitals during the 1865 Battle of Averasboro. The substantial 4,000+ square foot house features numerous high-style architectural elements. The exquisite woodwork throughout is an architectural lover’s dream. The house requires complete rehabilitation, but qualifies for historic preservation tax credits. Excellent location minutes from I-95 provides the best of rural living with city amenities close-by. Nearby access to the Cape Fear River Trail offers exceptional water-related outdoor activities.






Chimney which collapsed Prior to chimney collapse Prior to chimney collapse Prior to chimney collapse

Architectural and Historical Information

In a rural pocket at the Cumberland-Harnett county line once known as Smithville, three Smith family plantations still remain: Oak Grove (1789) in the center Lebanon (1824) to the north and the William T. Smith House (1835) to the south. The Battle of Averasboro occurred in this community of Smithville, a strategic location because of its setting between the Cape Fear River and the Black River. All three houses were used as field hospitals during the battle. This impressive house was built for William Turner Smith (1810-1855) and his wife Mary Campbell Smith (1814-1886) around 1835 shortly after their marriage.

Extensive archaeological studies have revealed the rich architectural history of this elegant home. The floor plan retains its Federal two-over-two-room hall-and-parlor plan. The interior is a feast for your eyes with its exquisite woodwork including Federal and Greek Revival mantels, extensive paneled wainscot with crotch mahogany faux finish, winder stair with Chinese Chippendale railing, paneled doors with original hardware, bold door and window moldings, and antique built-in cabinets. They just don’t build them like this anymore!

On the exterior, the two-story, single-pile frame house with a side-gable asphalt shingle roof is flanked by two large Flemish bond chimneys with diamond-pattern brickwork. The east chimney sadly collapsed in September 2018 as a result of Hurricane Florence but photos could be utilized to reconstruct it. A two-story pedimented portico dominates the front façade and is accented by a decorative sheaf-of-wheat balustrade. The striking first floor entrance is marked by the unusual two-door configuration, each door capped with a wide two-light transom. A wide fluted pilaster door surround adorns the entrance. The central entrance on the second floor is flanked by sidelights and a transom. Fluted pilasters on either side further accent the porch bay. A substantial Greek Revival two-story wing with a two-story side porch was added to the rear just prior to Smith’s death in 1855.

RENOVATION WORK NEEDED

Though it retains its historic form and much of its excellent early woodwork, the William T. Smith House has undergone some alterations including the installation of replacement windows (the original windows were 9-over-9 sash), a bathroom addition that covers the west end chimney, and enclosure of the two-story rear wing porch.

Some structural work has been performed including restoration of siding, and construction of 22 additional foundation piers. The house requires complete rehabilitation including some remaining foundation repairs, restoration of key architectural features and form, installation of mechanical systems, bathrooms, and a kitchen, and restoration of the front porch. Located just inside the southern boundary of the Averasboro Battlefield Historic District, it qualifies for historic preservation tax credits.

Area Information

Located in Cumberland County in the town of Averasboro, the historic town’s landscape retains its rural character: vast fields give way to thick forests, shallow and deep ravines, and meandering creeks. And yet, its close proximity to nearby Campbell University and the City of Fayetteville provides plenty of city amenities. Just minutes from I-95, it is an hour’s drive to the Research Triangle area and RDU Airport.

Close to the Cape Fear River, nearby access to the Cape Fear River Trail offers exceptional water-related outdoor activities. Also located within a few miles of the William T. Smith House are the other two restored Smith family plantations (privately owned), a Civil War museum and cemetery, and several monuments. Legend has it that this former port town might have become the capital of North Carolina, with the measure failing by just one vote.


Averasboro Battlefield - History

Battle of Averasborough

Other Names: Averasboro, Taylor’s Hole Creek, Smithville, Smiths Ferry, Black River

Location: Harnett County and Cumberland County

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum [US] Lt. Gen. William Hardee [CS]

Forces Engaged: XX Corps and XIV Corps (25,992) [US] Hardee’s Corps (5,400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,419 total

Averasborough Historical Marker

(The Battle of Averasboro)

Summary: On the afternoon of March 15, Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry came up against Lt. Gen. William Hardee’s corps—consisting of Taliaferro’s and McLaw’s infantry divisions and Wheeler’s dismounted cavalry—deployed across the Raleigh Road near Smithville. After feeling out the Confederate defenses, Kilpatrick withdrew and called for infantry support. During the night, four divisions of the XX Corps arrived to confront the Confederates. At dawn, March 16, the Federals advanced on a division front, driving back skirmishers, but they were stopped by the main Confederate line and a counterattack. Mid-morning, the Federals renewed their advance with strong reinforcements and drove the Confederates from two lines of wor ks, but were repulsed at a third line. Late afternoon, the Union XIV Corps began to arrive on the field but was unable to deploy before dark due to the swampy ground. Hardee retreated during the night after holding up the Union advance for nearly two days. (See: Battle of Averasboro: A History and Battle of Averasborough: Chronology .)

Battle of Averasborough Map

Civil War Battle of Averasboro Map

Sources: National Park Service Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

Recommended Reading : On Sherman 's Trail: The Civil War's North Carolina Climax. Description: Join journalist and historian Jim Wise as he follows Sherman 's last march through the Tar Heel State from Wilson 's Store to the surrender at Bennett Place . Retrace the steps of the soldiers at Averasboro and Bentonville. Learn about what the civilians faced as the Northern army approached and view the modern landscape through their eyes. Whether you are on the road or in a comfortable armchair, you will enjoy this memorable, well-researched account of General Sherman's North Carolina campaign and the brave men and women who stood in his path.

Recommended Reading : NO SUCH ARMY SINCE THE DAYS OF JULIUS CAESAR: Sherman 's Carolinas Campaign from Fayetteville to Averasboro (Discovering Civil War America ). Description: General William T. Sherman's 1865 Carolinas Campaign receives scant attention from most Civil War historians, largely because it was overshadowed by the Army of Northern Virginia's final campaign against the Army of the Potomac . However, a careful examination of this campaign indicates that few armies in all of military history accomplished more under more adverse conditions than did Sherman 's. Nadaljevanje spodaj …

Mark A. Smith and Wade Sokolosky, both career military officers, lend their professional eye to the critical but often overlooked run-up to the seminal Battle of Bentonville, covering March 11-16, 1865. Beginning with the capture of Fayetteville and the demolition of its Arsenal, Smith and Sokolosky chronicle the Battle of Averasboro in greater detail than ever tackled before in this, the third volume of Ironclad's, "The Discovering Civil War America Series." In the two-day fight at Averasboro, Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's Corps conducted a brilliantly planned and well-executed defense in depth that held Sherman 's juggernaut in check for two full days. Having accomplished his objective, Hardee then broke off and disengaged. This delay permitted General Joseph E. Johnston to concentrate his forces in preparation for what became the Battle of Bentonville. The book includes new maps, abundant illustrations, and a detailed driving and walking tour for dedicated battlefield stompers.

Recommended Reading : Sherman 's March Through the Carolinas . Description: In retrospect, General William Tecumseh Sherman considered his march through the Carolinas the greatest of his military feats, greater even than the Georgia campaign. When he set out northward from Savannah with 60,000 veteran soldiers in January 1865, he was more convinced than ever that the bold application of his ideas of total war could speedily end the conflict. Nadaljevanje spodaj …

John Barrett's story of what happened in the three months that followed is based on printed memoirs and documentary records of those who fought and of the civilians who lived in the path of Sherman 's onslaught. The burning of Columbia, the battle of Bentonville, and Joseph E. Johnston's surrender nine days after Appomattox are at the center of the story, but Barrett also focuses on other aspects of the campaign, such as the undisciplined pillaging of the 'bummers,' and on its effects on local populations. About the Author: John G. Barrett is professor emeritus of history at the Virginia Military Institute. He is author of several books, including The Civil War in North Carolina , and coeditor of North Carolina Civil War Documentary.

Recommended Reading : Sherman 's March: The First Full-Length Narrative of General William T. Sherman's Devastating March through Georgia and the Carolinas . Description: Sherman 's March is the vivid narrative of General William T. Sherman's devastating sweep through Georgia and the Carolinas in the closing days of the Civil War. Weaving together hundreds of eyewitness stories, Burke Davis graphically brings to life the dramatic experiences of the 65,000 Federal troops who plundered their way through the South and those of the anguished -- and often defiant -- Confederate women and men who sought to protect themselves and their family treasures, usually in vain. Dominating these events is the general himself -- "Uncle Billy" to his troops, the devil incarnate to the Southerners he encountered.

Recommended Reading : Southern Storm: Sherman 's March to the Sea , by Noah Andre Trudeau (Hardcover). From Publishers Weekly: Starred Review. Trudeau, a prize-winning Civil War historian ( Gettysburg ), addresses William T. Sherman's march to the sea in the autumn of 1864. Sherman 's inclusion of civilian and commercial property on the list of military objectives was not a harbinger of total war, says Trudeau. Rather, its purpose was to demonstrate to the Confederacy that there was no place in the South safe from Union troops. Nadaljevanje spodaj …


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