Muzej Runestone

Muzej Runestone


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Muzej Runestone, ki se nahaja na naslovu 206 Broadway v Aleksandriji v Minnesoti, je zasebni muzej, ki se osredotoča na zgodbo in zgodovino Kensingtonskega runestona, pravokotne plošče iz kamna Greywacke, ki vsebuje runsko pisavo na obrazu in na enem robu. Olofa Ohmana, švedskega kmeta, kamen v prvi vrsti prikazuje zgodbo skupine Vikingov iz leta 1362. Na ogled so tudi artefakti, ki osvetljujejo zgodovino Vikingov, zgodovino zgodnjih priseljencev na to območje, zgodovino Aleksandrije in nordijske dogodivščine in legende. Med prikazi je vidna 45-metrska vikinška ladja Snorri in Fort Alexandria, natančna kopija zagrade, ki jo je leta 1862 zgradila osma redna pehota. Soba odkritja, otroška interaktivna razstava, razstava prosto živečih živali v Minnesoti, indijanska razstava, soba pionirjev, vojni spomenik in razstava pištol so glavna muzejska območja. v sobi za odkritje je Kensingtonski runestone, pa tudi takšni vikinški artefakti, kot so glave sekire in konice kopja, najdene v okrožju Douglas in okolici. Na voljo so tudi najnovejše informacije o tekočem jezikovnem in geološkem preučevanju runestoka. Značilnosti razstave divjih živali v Minnesoti so raznolika zbirka ptic in sesalcev, ki izvirajo iz gozdov in mokrišč Minnesote. . V zbirko so vključeni tudi fotografski prikazi. Oddelek War Memorial and Gun Exhibit vsebuje vrsto strelnega orožja in dodatkov, ki segajo od začetka 19. do 20. stoletja. Dodatna atrakcija je Trgovina s trgovskimi darili Runestone z izbiro Spominki in edinstvena darila v Minnesoti.


Runski kamni

Runski kamni iz obdobja Vikingov so bili postavljeni v spomin na mrtve - večinoma močne ljudi - in njihova častna dejanja. Namenjeni so bili vidnosti in so bili pobarvani v svetle barve. Kamni so pogosto stali v bližini cest ali mostov, kjer je mimo prišlo veliko ljudi. Ni nujno, da so bili položeni na pokop osebe, ki so jo spomnili.

Runski kamni nas zelo približajo Vikingom. Njihovi napisi vsebujejo imena ljudi, ki so v tem času živeli in umrli. Ponujajo tudi informacije o potovanjih, velikih dosežkih in žalostnih usodah teh posameznikov.

Kamen Glavendrup. Vzgojili so ga Ragnhild in njeni sinovi.

Muzej Runestone

Amerika ljubi Vikinge in morda jih nobeno mesto v Ameriki ne ljubi bolj kot skandinavsko naseljeno mesto Aleksandrija, ki je rdečebrade priklenil na svoje državljansko naročje že več kot 100 let. V središču mesta je 202-kilogramska kamnita plošča, v kateri so vpisane nordijske rune-Kensingtonski runestone-ki stoji tik ob vhodu v muzej Runestone. Bronasta plošča pod njo, z datumom 1928, pravi, da je bila, "V okrožju Douglas so jo postavili Vikingi." To ni privedlo do konca nenehne zmede.


Vikinški oče, ki ostane doma, in njegova lanela družina na razstavi hiše Viking.

Runestone, katerega napis je iz leta 1362, je leta 1898 nekaj milj zunaj Aleksandrije našel švedski kmet priseljenec Olof Ohman. Je bilo res? Je bilo ponarejeno? Je Ohman poskušal potegniti še enega velikana Cardiffa? (V zapisanem muzejskem videu je zapisano: "Nihče ni mogel verjeti, da bi naredil kaj takega.")


Rune, ki bi sčasoma lahko uničile Kolumbov dan.

Znanstveniki so Runestone zavrnili kot nemogoče, Ohmana pa kot goljufa ali norca. Razočaran je ploščo uporabil kot prag, nato pa jo prodal nekemu tipu v Wisconsinu za deset dolarjev.

Sčasoma so strokovnjaki vse bolj sprejemali Runestone (čeprav ima še vedno skeptične sovražnike). Po besedah ​​direktorja muzeja Jima Bergquista je bil Runestone nekaj časa celo prikazan v Smithsonianu. V zgodnjih petdesetih letih je bila dana Aleksandriji, ki je na obrobju mesta zgradila velikansko repliko in nato zgradila muzej Runestone posebej za prikaz izvirnika.


Vikinška ladja in fotoop v muzejski prilogi.

Muzej ima poleg istoimenske plošče široko paleto eksponatov. Obstajajo prikazi o industriji masla in lesa v Minnesoti, lokalno odkritih kosti mamutov in prevozu po snegu. Obstaja veliko velikih mrtvih rib. Za muzejem stoji "Fort Alexandria", vas pionirskih zgradb, vključno s postajališčem diližur in norveško hišo za priseljence.

Na drugem mestu po Runestoneu v muzejski razvitosti je Spotty, mali pes, ki so ga nadevali v poznih petdesetih letih. Spotty je pripadal "babici" Elle Pearson in leži na preprogi, ki "pazi na babičino vrnitev", glede na njegov prikaz. "Otroci ga imajo radi ali pa se jim kar izmuzne," je dejal Jim.

Spotty je atrakcija z dvema palcema navzgor, vendar večina obiskovalcev muzeja še vedno prihaja zaradi Runestona. Razstave, ki obkrožajo ploščo, navajajo lasersko skeniranje, visokotehnološke študije "razgradnje sljude" in napredek jezikovnega učenja, ki je pokazal, da "bi bilo nemogoče", da bi celo genij ponaredil Runestone leta 1898. Sekire starega videza in druge relikvije, najdene v bližini, krepijo njeno verodostojnost. Zemljevid sledi možni poti rezbarjev Runestona od Skandinavije do Kensingtona. Jim Bergquist bi lahko vse, razen 40 do 50 milj, potoval po vodi.


Noben muzej v Minnesoti ni popoln brez vsaj ene velike ribe.

Zemljevid je ponazorjen z dolgoletno ladjo Viking, to pa je še ena zmeda pri Kensington Runestone. Vprašajte koga v muzeju in iskreno vam bo razložil, da se je doba Vikingov končala 300 let, preden je bil (domnevno) izklesan rudniški kamen Kensington. Leta 1362 ni bilo Vikingov, niti oddaljenih Vikingov v Minnesoti. Vendar pa ima muzej v svoji prizidku 40 metrov dolg repliko vikinškega čolna, veliko oljno sliko družine Viking in voščeno lutko diorame vikinškega doma. Majice za prodajo v trgovini s spominki (v runah) so pisale: "Če lahko to preberete, ste Viking." Zunaj pod vodstvom muzeja stoji Big Ole, 28 metrov visok kip Vikinga. Mesto ga obožuje.


Pegavi pes, polnjen v poznih petdesetih letih - bonus v muzeju Runestone.

Jim je dejal, da lokalni skandinavski ponos in vikinški fandom naredijo stvari "malce neurejene", ko gre za priznanje ustvarjalcem Runestona. Ve, da obstaja velika razlika med Vikingom, ki lovi sekiro, in pozno srednjeveškim skandinavskim raziskovalcem, toda odkrito povedano, večini ljudi je vseeno. "Ko smo nadgradili našo razstavo Viking Home," je dejal Jim, "smo vprašali:" Ali naj poskusimo ugotoviti, kakšna oblačila so nosili leta 1362? Ali koga zanimajo take stvari? "Jim je vedel odgovor." "Ni preveč ljudi."

"Potem smo," je nadaljeval Jim, "vprašali:" Koliko ljudi zanima Vikinge? ' In odgovorili smo: 'Vsi!' Zato smo se odločili, da ostanemo pri tem. "


Ocena popotnikov TripAdvisor

Odličen obisk od trenutka, ko smo prispeli. Kljub temu, da jim primanjkuje osebja, nas je gospa za pultom popeljala v muzej in pokazala najboljšo pot, ki jo ne smemo zamuditi.
& mdash mw4au, 20. junij 2021

Zelo urejeno mesto. veliko za pogledati. Karen za pultom se drži, vendar je muzej precej kul.
& mdash derricks850, 1. maja 2021

Če ste spremljali zgodbo Runestone, si morate to mesto ogledati. Odgovorili so mi na vsako vprašanje in mi nekaj govorijo.
& mdash Midex9, 21. marec 2021

Od trenutka, ko smo vstopili, je bil to dober obisk. Izjava COVID-19 na vratih in vsi, ki so upoštevali pravila, smo se z ženo počutili varne. Telefon lahko uporabite za vodniški ogled. Res je.
& mdash George D, 20. september 2020

Zelo lep muzej o nečem, za kar še nisem slišal. Želim si, da bi si vzel več časa, da se ustavim in preberem. Otroci niso bili zainteresirani. Na začetku je kratek video, ki vam pove.
& mdash 847karaj, 13. avgust 2020


Muzej Runestone

Kaj je treba storiti?

Več kot 50 let je Muzej Runestone in je navdihoval radovednost o lokalni dediščini in zgodovini, zakaj se torej ne odpravite v ta muzej v Minnesoti in se prepričate, zakaj tako veliko družin radi obiščejo?

Muzej Runestone, ki se nahaja v središču Aleksandrije, je začel življenje leta 1958, na ogled pa je bil le znameniti in kontroverzni kamen Kensington.

Danes muzej ni dom le tega ikoničnega kosa zgodovine, temveč tudi toliko drugih fascinantnih in skrivnostnih artefaktov, ki jih najdemo v Minnesoti in se nanašajo na srednjeveške nordijske raziskovalce.

40-delna zbirka vsebuje ognjevarno jeklo Climax, ki je eno izmed edinih srednjeveških nordijskih jeklenih jekel, razstavljenih v Severni Ameriki.

Otroci vedno obožujejo otroško sobo za odkrivanje, kjer je bila aktivna igra zasnovana z mislijo na izobraževanje, otroci pa se lahko igrajo, uporabljajo svojo domišljijo pri oblačenju in se celo naučijo abecede rune!

Si lahko predstavljate, da ste bili pred vsemi temi leti domači in dobro naložite na svoj voz?

Vse o bogati skandinavski dediščini regije lahko izveste na istoimenski razstavi, ki prikazuje bogato zgodovino izseljencev in je celo dom 40 -metrske replike trgovske ladje Viking, ki je nameščena v trdnjavi Aleksandrija in je del odprtega dela na prostem. muzej.

Utrdba Alexandria (odprta od aprila do oktobra) predstavlja utrdbo iz obdobja državljanske vojne in vključuje 9 zgodovinskih stavb, prvotno zgrajenih med letoma 1860 in 1910, ki otrokom ponujajo priložnost, da vidijo, kakšno je bilo utrdbeno življenje prvih evropskih naseljencev!

Obstaja razstava o prvih ljudeh v regiji, pa tudi o lokalnih prostoživečih živalih in naravni zgodovini, zato ne glede na to, ali vas zanima dediščina, naravoslovje ali zgodovina, Muzej Runestone naredi zanimiv dan v Minnesoti!


Vsebina

Tradicija dvigovanja kamnov z runskimi napisi se je prvič pojavila v 4. in 5. stoletju, na Norveškem in Švedskem, ti zgodnji kamni pa so bili običajno postavljeni ob grobovih. [2] [3] Najstarejši danski rune kamni so se pojavili v 8. in 9. stoletju, v Skandinaviji pa je iz obdobja selitev približno 50 runskih kamnov. [4] Večina kamnov je bila postavljenih v obdobju 950-1100 n.št., nato pa so jih večinoma gojili na Švedskem, v manjši meri pa na Danskem in Norveškem. [2]

Tradicija je omenjena v obeh Ynglinga saga in Hávamál:

Za posledico moških bi si morali v spomin podariti gomilo, za vse ostale bojevnike, ki so se zaradi moškosti odlikovali, pa stoječi kamen, kar je še dolgo ostalo po Odinovem času.

- Ynglinga saga [5]
Sin je boljši, čeprav se je pozno rodil, in očetu do smrti se je godilo. Kamni spomina redko stojijo ob cesti, razen ko sorodnik časti sorodnike. -Hávamál [6]

Možno je, da se je širjenje rune kamnov povečalo, je bil dogodek na Danskem v devetdesetih letih 20. stoletja. Kralj Harald Bluetooth je bil pravkar krščen in da bi označil prihod novega reda in nove dobe, je ukazal gradnjo kamna iz rune. [7] Napis se glasi

Kralj Haraldr je naročil ta spomenik v spomin na Gormrja, njegovega očeta in v spomin na Þyrvéja, njegovo mamo, tistega Haraldra, ki je zase osvojil vso Dansko in Norveško ter Dance naredil krščanske. [7] [8]

Runestone ima tri strani, od katerih sta dve okrašeni s podobami. Na eni strani je žival, ki je prototip runskih živali, ki bi bile običajno vgravirane na kamnih iz kamnov, na drugi strani pa najstarejša upodobitev Jezusa na Danskem. Kmalu po tem, ko je bil kamen izdelan, se je v skandinavski runski tradiciji nekaj zgodilo [ po kom? ]. Številni poglavarji in močni nordijski klani so zavestno poskušali posnemati kralja Haralda, iz Danske pa se je skozi Severno po Švedski razširil val runenih kamnov [ po kom? ]. V večini okrožij je modna muha po eni generaciji zamrla, v osrednjih švedskih provincah Uppland in Södermanland pa je moda trajala vse do 12. stoletja. [7]

Med približno 6.000 runskimi napisi v Skandinaviji je okoli 3000 runskih kamnov. [3] Tudi v drugih delih sveta obstajajo rune kamni, saj je tradicija dvigovanja kamnov sledila Nordežanom, kamor koli so šli, od otoka Man (Manški runski kamni) na zahodu do Črnega morja na vzhodu (Berezan 'Runestone) , in od Jämtlanda na severu do Schleswiga na jugu. [2]

V Skandinaviji so runski kamni neenakomerno razporejeni: Danska ima 250, Norveška 50, Islandija pa nobenega. [4] Na Švedskem je med 1.700 [4] in 2.500 [3] [7] odvisno od opredelitve. Najvišjo koncentracijo ima švedsko okrožje Uppland s kar 1196 vpisi v kamen, medtem ko je Södermanland drugi s 391. [7]

Zunaj Skandinavije izstopa otok Man s svojih 30 runskih kamnov iz 9. stoletja in začetka 11. stoletja. [9] Raztresene kamnine so našli tudi v Angliji, na Irskem, Škotskem in Ferskih otokih. [3] Z izjemo rune kamna na Berezanu 'v Vzhodni Evropi ni kamnov, kar je verjetno posledica pomanjkanja razpoložljivih kamnov in dejstva, da lokalno prebivalstvo do kamnov tujcev najverjetneje ni ravnalo s spoštovanjem. [10]

Rune kamni so bili postavljeni na izbrana mesta v pokrajini, kot so lokacije montaže, ceste, konstrukcije mostov in brade. V srednjeveških cerkvah pogosto najdemo rune kamne, ki so jih vstavili kot gradbeni material, in razpravlja se o tem, ali so bili prvotno del cerkvene lokacije ali so bili tja preseljeni. V južni Skaniji so lahko kamni vezani na velika posestva, na katerih so bile zgrajene tudi cerkve. V dolini Mälaren se zdi, da so kamni postavljeni tako, da označujejo bistvene dele domen posestva, kot so dvorišče, grobno polje in meje na sosednja posestva. Runski kamni se običajno pojavljajo kot posamezni spomeniki in redkeje kot pari. V nekaterih primerih, kot je spomenik Hunnestad, so skupaj z drugimi dvignjenimi kamni del večjih spomenikov. [2]

Čeprav znanstveniki vedo, kje je bilo odkritih 95% vseh kamnov, je bilo le približno 40% odkritih na njihovi prvotni lokaciji. Preostanek so našli v cerkvah, cestah, mostovih, grobovih, kmetijah in vodnih poteh. [11] Po drugi strani se znanstveniki strinjajo, da kamni niso bili premaknjeni zelo daleč od svojih prvotnih mest. [12]

Učinek vere Uredi

V mnogih okrožjih ima 50% kamnitih napisov sledi krščanstva, toda v Upplandu, ki ima največjo koncentracijo runskih napisov na svetu, je približno 70% od 1.196 kamnitih napisov izrecno krščanskih, kar je prikazano z vgraviranimi križi ali dodane krščanske molitve, le nekaj runo kamnov pa ni krščanskih. [7]

Znanstveniki menijo, da je razlog, zakaj je bilo v Upplandu postavljenih toliko krščanskih kamnov, to, da je bilo okrožje osrednja točka spora med nordijskim poganstvom in novokrščenim švedskim kraljem. Možno je, da so poglavarji poskušali izkazati svojo zvestobo kralju in prikazati svojo krščansko vero svetu in Bogu, tako da so na njihove kamne dodali krščanske križe in molitve. V nasprotju s to teorijo je dejstvo, da Norveška, Danska in Götaland niso imele ustreznega razvoja v tradiciji runestone. Poleg tega noben runski kamen ne razglaša, da je bilo do kralja kakšno razmerje. [14] Poleg tega se zdi, da runski kamni kažejo, da je bila pretvorba precej miren proces. [15]

Po drugi teoriji je bila družabna moda priljubljena med nekaterimi klani, ne pa med vsemi. [14] Ko so nekateri klani v južnem Upplandu začeli dvigovati kamne, so jih posnemali sosednji klani. Vendar v delih, kjer so bili ti klani manj vplivni, dvigovanje rune kamnov ni doseglo enake priljubljenosti. [16] Več znanstvenikov je opozorilo na dolge odprave Vikingov in precejšnje kopičenje bogastva v okrožju. V tem času so švedski poglavarji blizu Stockholma ustvarili precejšnja bogastva s trgovino in ropanjem tako na vzhodu kot na zahodu. Videli so dansko kamenje Jelling ali pa so jih navdihnili irski visoki križi in drugi spomeniki. [7]

Runski kamni prikazujejo različne načine, na katere je krščanstvo spremenilo nordijsko družbo, in ena največjih sprememb je bila, da pokojnika ne pokopljejo več na grobnem polju klana med njegovimi predniki. Namesto tega je bil pokopan na cerkvenem pokopališču [17], medtem ko bi runski kamen služil kot spomin na domačiji [18], za nekatere družine pa je bilo manj sprememb, saj so cerkve zgradili ob družinskem grobu. [19]

Glavni namen kamna je bil označiti ozemlje, razložiti dediščino, se hvaliti z gradnjami, slaviti mrtve sorodnike in pripovedovati o pomembnih dogodkih. V nekaterih delih Upplanda so runski kamni delovali tudi kot družbeni in ekonomski kazalci. [14]

Skoraj vsi runski kamni iz pozne vikinške dobe uporabljajo isto formulo. Besedilo govori v spomin, kdo je postavljen rune kamen, kdo ga je dvignil in pogosto, kako sta pokojnik in tisti, ki je dvignila kamen, med seboj povezana. Napis lahko pove tudi družbeni status umrle osebe, morebitno potovanje v tujino, kraj smrti in tudi molitev, kot je v naslednjem primeru [20] Lingsberg Runestone U 241:

Danr, Húskarl in Sveinn so dali kamen postaviti v spomin na Ulfríkrja, očeta njihovega očeta. V Angliji je prejel dva plačila. Naj Bog in božja mati pomagata dušam očeta in sina. [20] [21]

Dvigači kamna Edit

Večino kamnov so dvignili moški, le enega od osmih pa ena sama ženska, najmanj 10% pa ženska skupaj z več moškimi. Običajno so rune kamne vzgajali sinovi in ​​vdove pokojnika, lahko pa so jih dvignili tudi sestre in bratje. Skoraj le v Upplandu, Södermanlandu in Ölandu so ženske skupaj z moškimi sorodniki gojile kamne. Ni znano, zakaj je mogoče veliko ljudi, kot so sestre, bratje, strici, starši, hišni kravlji in poslovni partnerji, našteti na kamnih, vendar je možno, da so zato, ker so del dedičev. [20]

Tisti so se spominjali Edit

Velika večina, 94%, je vzgojenih v spomin na moške, vendar je v nasprotju s splošnim prepričanjem velika večina runskih kamnov v spomin na ljudi, ki so umrli doma. Najbolj znani kamni in tisti, o katerih ljudje mislijo, so tisti, ki pripovedujejo o tujih potovanjih, vendar obsegajo le c. 10% vseh runskih kamnov [20] in so bili običajno zbrani v spomin na tiste, ki se niso vrnili z vikinških odprav, in ne kot poklon tistim, ki so se vrnili. [22] Ti kamni vsebujejo približno enako sporočilo kot večina runskih kamnov, to je, da so se ljudje želeli spomniti enega ali več mrtvih sorodnikov. [20]

Odprave na vzhodu Edit

Prvi človek, za katerega znanstveniki vedo, da je padel na vzhodni poti, je bil East Geat Eyvindr, čigar usoda je omenjena na ruelskem kamnu Kälvesten iz 9. stoletja. [20] Natpis se glasi:

Styggr/Stigr je ta spomenik naredil v spomin na svojega sina Eyvindra. Padel je na vzhodu z Eivíslom. Víkingr obarvan in Grímulfr. [22] [23]

Zgodovinarji so žal, da kamni le redko razkrijejo, kje so umrli moški. [22] Na kamnu Smula Runestone v Västergötlandu smo obveščeni le o tem, da so umrli med vojno na vzhodu: "Gulli/Kolli je ta kamen dvignil v spomin na brata svoje žene Ásbjôrn in Juli, zelo dobre hrabre moške. In umrli so. na vzhodu v spremstvu ". [22] [24] Drugi mojster rune v isti provinci lakonsko na rumunskem kamnu Dalum navaja: "Tóki in njegovi bratje so ta kamen dvignili v spomin na svoje brate. Eden je umrl na zahodu, drugi na vzhodu". [22] [25]

Država, ki je omenjena na najbolj rune kamnih, je Bizantinsko cesarstvo, ki je takrat obsegalo večino Male Azije in Balkana ter del južne Italije. Če je človek umrl v Bizantinskem cesarstvu, ne glede na to, kako je umrl ali v kateri pokrajini, je bil dogodek zapisan kot "umrl je v Grčiji". Včasih bi lahko bila izjema za južno Italijo, ki je bila znana kot dežela Langobardov, na primer Ingin Óleifr, ki je bil, po domnevah, pripadnik Varjaške garde in o katerem Djulaforsov runski kamen v Södermanlandu pravi: "Inga dvignil ta kamen v spomin na Óleifr, njo. Oral je krmo proti vzhodu in svoj konec srečal v deželi Langobardov. " [22] [26]

Drugi Nordijci so umrli v Gardarikiju (Rusija in Ukrajina), na primer Sigviðr na rudniku Esta, za katerega je njegov sin Ingifastr poročal, da je pobegnil v Novgorod (Holmgarðr): "Padel je v Holmgarðru, vodji ladje z mornarji." [22] [27] Drugi so umrli nedaleč od doma in zdi se, da so bili z Estonijo tesni stiki zaradi številnih osebnih imen, kot je npr. Æistfari ("popotnik v Estonijo"), Tuistulfr ("Volk iz Estonije") in Æistr ("Estonec"). Eden od kamnov, ki poročajo o smrti v Estoniji, je Ängby Runestone, ki govori o tem, da je Björn umrl v Vironiji (Virland). [22]

Po poročilih runskih kamnov je bilo veliko načinov za smrt. Runski kamen Åda poroča, da se je Bergviðr utopil med potovanjem v Livonijo [22], rudniški kamen Sjonhem pa pripoveduje, da je Gotlander Hróðfúss na zahrbten način ubil nekdanji narod na Balkanu. [28] Najbolj znani kamni, ki pripovedujejo o vzhodnih potovanjih, so Ingvarski kamni, ki pripovedujejo o odpravi Ingvarja Popotnika na Serkland, torej v muslimanski svet. Končalo se je v tragediji, saj nobeden od več kot 25 kamnov, ki so bili postavljeni v njegov spomin, ne govori o preživelih. [29]

Expeditions in the West Edit

Drugi Vikingi so potovali proti zahodu. Anglosaksonski vladarji so plačali velike zneske, Danegelde, Vikingom, ki so večinoma prihajali z Danske in so prišli na angleško obalo v 990-ih in prvih desetletjih 11. stoletja. Kar je lahko del Danegelda, so našli potopljenega v potoku v Södra Betbyju na Södermanlandu na Švedskem. Na lokaciji je tudi rune kamen z besedilom: "[.] Dvignite kamen v spomin na Jôrundra, njegovega sina, ki je bil na zahodu z Ulfrom, Hákonovim sinom." [29] [30] Ni verjetno, da je potovanje proti zahodu povezano z angleškim srebrnim zakladom. [29] Drugi runski kamni so bolj izraziti pri Danegeldih. Ulf Borresta, ki je živel v Vallentuni, je večkrat potoval proti zahodu [29], kot poroča rudniški kamen Yttergärde:

In Ulfr je v Angliji opravil tri plačila. To je bilo zadnje, kar je Tosti plačal. Potem je keorketill plačal. Potem je Knútr plačal. [29] [31]

Tosti je bil morda švedski poglavar Skoglar Tosti, ki ga sicer omenja le Snorri Sturluson leta Heimskringla in za katerega Snorri poroča, da je bil "velik bojevnik", ki "dolgo ni bil na vojnih odpravah". Keorketill je bil Thorkell the Tall, eden najbolj znanih poglavarjev Vikingov, ki je pogosto bival v Angliji. Knútr ni nihče drug kot Kanut Veliki, ki je leta 1016. postal angleški kralj. [29]

Canute je domov poslal večino Vikingov, ki so mu pomagali osvojiti Anglijo, vendar je obdržal močnega telesnega stražarja, Þingaliða. Biti del te sile je veljalo za veliko čast, na Runestoneu Häggeby v Upplandu pa poročajo, da je Geiri "sedel v spremstvu skupščine na zahodu", [29] [32] in Landeryd Runestone omenja Þjalfi "ki je bil s Knútrom". [29] [33] Nekateri švedski Vikingi niso želeli nič drugega kot potovanje z Danci, kot sta Thorkell in Canute Veliki, vendar nista prišla do cilja. Sveinn, ki je prišel iz Husby-Sjuhundre v Upplandu, je umrl, ko je bil na pol poti v Anglijo, kot je razloženo na kamnu, ki mu je bil postavljen v spomin: "Umrl je v Jútlandu. Nameraval je potovati v Anglijo". [34] [35] Drugi Vikingi, na primer Guðvér, niso napadli samo Anglije, ampak tudi Saško, o čemer poroča Grinda Runestone v Södermanlandu: [36]

Grjótgarðr (in) Einriði, sinova sta naredila (kamen) v spomin na (svojega) sposobnega očeta. Guðvér je bil na zahodu razdeljen (navzgor) plačilo v Angliji, ki je moško napadel mest na Saškem. [36] [37]

Skupaj je približno 30 runskih kamnov, ki pripovedujejo o ljudeh, ki so odšli v Anglijo [36], glej Angleške rune kamne. Nekateri od njih so zelo lakonski in povedo le, da je bil Viking pokopan v Londonu ali v Bathu v Somersetu. [36]

Uredi pretvorbo

Švedski možje, ki so potovali na Dansko, v Anglijo ali na Saško in v Bizantinsko cesarstvo, so imeli pomembno vlogo pri uvedbi krščanstva na Švedskem [38], dva runska kamna pa pripovedujeta o moških, krščenih na Danskem, na primer rune kamen v Amnöju, ki pravi: Umrl je v krstnih oblekah na Danskem. " [39] [40] Podobno sporočilo je podano na drugem kamnu v Vallentuni pri Stockholmu, ki pravi, da sta dva sinova čakala, dokler nista bila na smrtni postelji, preden sta se spreobrnila: "Umrla sta v (svojih) krstnih oblekah." [36] [41] Obleke za krst ali krstna oblačila, hvitavaðir, so bili pokrščenim Skandinavcem podarjeni, ko so se krstili, v Upplandu pa obstaja vsaj sedem kamnov, ki pripovedujejo o spreobrnjenih v teh oblačilih. [39] [42]

Jezik, ki so ga uporabljali misijonarji, se pojavlja na več kamnih in nakazujejo, da so misijonarji pri pridiganju uporabljali precej enoten jezik. [38] Izraz "svetloba in raj" je predstavljen na treh runskih kamnih, od katerih sta dva v Upplandu in tretji na danskem otoku Bornholm. Runestone U 160 v Risbyleu pravi: "Naj Bog in Božja mati pomagata njegovemu duhu in duši, da mu data svetlobo in raj." [38] [43] in Bornholmski runestone prav tako nagovarja svetega Mihaela: "Naj Kristus in sveti Mihael pomagata dušama Auðbjôrna in Gunnhildra v svetlobo in raj." [38] [44]

Krščanska terminologija je bila nadgrajena na prejšnjo pogansko, in tako Raj substituiran Valhalla, priklice do Thora in čarobne čare so zamenjali sveti Mihael, Kristus, Bog in Mati božja. [38] Sveti Mihael, ki je bil vodja nebeške vojske, je prevzel vlogo Odina kot psihopompa in popeljal mrtve kristjane do "svetlobe in raja". [45] Na enega rune kamna v Upplandu, enega na Gotlandu, treh na Bornholmu in enega na Lollandu, se prikliče sveti Mihael. [38]

Obstaja tudi rugesstone Bogesund, ki priča o spremembi, da ljudje niso bili več pokopani na družinskem grobnem polju: "Umrl je v Eikreyu (?). Pokopan je na cerkvenem dvorišču." [18] [46]

Druge vrste runestonov Edit

Še en zanimiv razred runestona je kamen-runa-kot-samopromocija. Hvalisanje je bilo v nordijski družbi vrlina, navada, ki so si jo junaki sag pogosto privoščili, in je ponazorjena v ruševinah tistega časa. Na stotine ljudi je bilo izrezljanih kamnov z namenom oglaševanja lastnih dosežkov ali pozitivnih lastnosti. Nekaj ​​primerov bo dovolj:

    : "Vigmund je dal vklesati ta kamen v spomin na sebe, najpametnejšega človeka. Naj Bog pomaga duši Vigmunda, kapetana ladje. Vigmund in Åfrid sta ta spomenik izrezljala, dokler je bil živ." : "Sin Östmana Gudfasta je naredil most in pokristjanil Jämtland"
  • 212: "Eskill Skulkason je dal ta kamen dvigniti k sebi. Vedno bo stal ta spomenik, ki ga je naredil Eskill": "Jarlabanki je dal postaviti ta kamen v svojem življenju. In to stezo je naredil zaradi svoje duše. Täbyja samega. Naj mu Bog pomaga. "

Drugi runski kamni, kot je razvidno iz dveh od prejšnjih treh napisov, spominjajo pobožna dejanja razmeroma novih kristjanov. V teh lahko vidimo vrste dobrih del, ki so si jih ljudje privoščili, da bi naročili rune. Drugi napisi namigujejo na verska prepričanja. Eden se na primer glasi:

    : "Ulvshattil in Gye in Une sta naročila, da so ta kamen postavili v spomin na Ulva, svojega dobrega očeta. Živel je v Skolhamri. Bog in božja mati rešita njegovega duha in dušo, ga obdarita s svetlobo in rajem."

Čeprav je bila večina kamnov postavljenih za ohranjanje spominov na moške, mnogi govorijo o ženskah, pogosto predstavljenih kot vestni lastniki zemljišč in pobožni kristjani:

    : "Sigrid, Alrikova mama, Ormova hči je naredila ta most za svojega moža Holmgersa, očeta Sigoerda, za njegovo dušo"

kot pomembni člani razširjenih družin:

  • Br Olsen215: "Mael-Lomchon in hči Dubh-Gaela, ki ju je imel Adils ženo, sta dvignila ta križ v spomin na Mael-Muire, njegovo rejenko. Bolje je pustiti dobrega rejnika kot slabega sina."

in toliko pogrešanih ljubljenih:

    : "Gunnor, Thythrikova hči, je naredila most v spomin na svojo hčer Astrid. Bila je najbolj spretno dekle v Hadelandu."

Jelling kamni, ki so sprožili velik trend rune kamnov v Skandinaviji [ po kom? ]


Skrivnosti vikinškega kamna

Koliko novega sveta so kolonizirali Vikingi? Islandske sage pripovedujejo o regiji v Severni Ameriki, imenovani 'Vinland'. Norveški raziskovalec Leif Erikson naj bi tja stopil več sto let, preden se je Christopher Columbus odpravil na pot, poznamo pa eno mesto - L'Anse aux Meadows na Newfoundlandu - ki je bilo naselje Vikingov okoli leta 1000 našega štetja.

Toda ali so Nordijci dejansko šli daleč dlje v severnoameriška središča? Kensingtonski runestone kaže, da so to storili, vendar še vedno potekajo polemike glede njegove pristnosti.

Preberite več o: Skrivnosti vikinškega kamna

"Bilo je kot klic": Peter Stormare v "Skrivnosti vikinškega kamna"

Kaj je ruski kamen Kensington?

Leta 1898 je Olof Öhman, švedski migrant, ki se je naselil v Minnesoti, naredil zanimivo odkritje. While clearing out some land he’d purchased close to the township of Kensington, he found a slab of sandstone lodged within the hard, tangled roots of a tree. His son Edward noticed some strange markings on the stone, prompting Öhman to drag the stone out and take it back to his farm.

The markings were confirmed to be Scandinavian runes, and the find became a regional sensation, covered by Minnesota journalists and put on display at a local bank. News of the stone spread across the world, as international experts weighed in on its authenticity. Today it’s on display at the Runestone Museum in Alexandria, Minnesota.

What is written on the Kensington Runestone?

The Runestone was apparently left by a group of 30 northern European explorers 'on an exploration journey from Vinland to the west'. According to the runes, members of the party went fishing one day, then returned to their camp to find 'ten men red of blood and dead'. The stone also says that there were other explorers left behind on the coastline, a 14-day journey away. Most tantalising of all is the date inscribed on the Runestone: 1362. That’s 130 years before the first trans-Atlantic voyage of Columbus.

Read more about: Vikings

Three of the greatest Viking explorers that ever set sail

Is it a genuine relic or an elaborate hoax?

This is the thorny question at the heart of the Runestone story. When the discovery came to widespread scholarly attention in the early 20th Century, a series of linguists and historians bluntly dismissed it as a hoax – perpetrated either by Öhman or parties unknown. This remains the general consensus today, with both circumstantial and academic evidence often cited by critics.

First, there’s the context to consider. There had, around the time of the discovery, been a resurgence of interest in early Norse adventures in America. Five years earlier, in 1893, a full-scale Viking ship was sailed all the way from Norway to the United States. It rather cheekily stole the show at the World’s Columbian Exposition, a major event held to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Columbus’ arrival in the New World. This audacious trip sensationally proved that it was entirely possible to cross the ocean in a Viking ship. A few years before that, in 1877, an essay titled America Not Discovered by Columbus, written by professor at the University of Wisconsin, had become widely read even outside the world of academia.

In other words, the Kensington Runestone was dug up during a suspiciously convenient period, when there was a general public appetite for all things relating to Vikings in America. That its discoverer, Olof Öhman, just happened to be a Scandinavian himself is a fact that has further raised suspicious eyebrows among critics.

The grisly nature of the story recounted by the Runestone is also regarded by some scholars as a too-convenient explanation for why the Norsemen didn’t establish a permanent settlement. As an essay in Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, edited by William Fitzhugh and Elisabeth I. Ward, puts it, the apparent massacre of ten men 'red of blood and dead' rather neatly 'explained why the various voyages did not have a lasting impact: aggressive Native Americans stood in their way'.

Read more about: Vikings

5 fiercest Viking warriors

There has also been intense scrutiny of the stone itself. Some of the runes cross into a portion of the slab which is covered by calcite, a mineral that’s softer than the rest of the Runestone. The runes in the calcite section should, therefore, be in worse shape due to centuries of weathering. However, geologist Harold Edwards wrote in 2016 that 'the inscription is about as sharp as the day it was carved… The surface of the calcite layer shows the granular texture that is typical of weathered calcite so it was weathered for some time. The letters are smooth showing virtually no weathering'.

Then there’s the question of the wording of the runes. Much has been made of possible discrepancies between the language seen on the stone and how 14th Century Scandinavian explorers would have spoken or written. Henrik Williams, a professor of Scandinavian languages who specialises in runology, has written that 'In my best judgment as an expert in the field, I cannot find that the [Kensington Runestone] inscription looks like any medieval Scandinavian text I have ever seen'.

Read more about: Secrets of the Viking Stone

The Kensington Runestone: A Viking mystery

Yet Williams has also acknowledged a lack of conclusive evidence either way, saying that 'even though the case for a 14th Century origin still leaves much to be desired, I also want to point out that the case for a 19th Century origin is not complete'. It’s also important to note that some experts have come out in favour of the Runestone’s authenticity. A prominent example is forensic geologist Scott Wolter, who has decried the 'deliberate attempt by academics… to smear the Runestone', and has even suggested, based on his analysis of the runic symbols, that the people who left the Runestone were Knights Templar.

Henrik Williams has dismissed such talk as 'pure Dan Brown', but it’s clear the Kensington Runestone has lost none of its power to intrigue and spark debate about the early European experience in America.


Contents

The stone has inscriptions on two sides, called side A and side B. Side A consists of an inscription of two lines (A1 and A2), and side B consists of an inscription of three lines (B1, B2 and B3), [2] each line done in boustrophedon style. [3]

A1: ekwiwazafter`woduri A2: dewitadahalaiban:worathto`?[---

B1: . zwoduride:staina: B2: þrijozdohtrizdalidun B3: arbijasijostezarbijano

The transcription of the runic text is:

A: Ek Wiwaz after Woduride witandahlaiban worhto r[unoz]. B: [Me]z(?) Woduride staina þrijoz dohtriz dalidun(?) arbija arjostez(?) arbijano. [4]

The English translation is:

I, Wiwaz, made the runes after Woduridaz, my lord. For me, Woduridaz, three daughters, the most distinguished of the heirs, prepared the stone. [4]

The name Wiwaz means "darter" while Woduridaz means "fury-rider." [3] The phrase witandahlaiban that is translated as "my lord" means "ward-bread" or "guardian of the bread." [5] [6] (The English word "lord" similarly originated from Old English hlāford < hlāf-weard literally "loaf-ward", i.e. "guardian of the bread".)

Interpretations Edit

The runic inscription was first interpreted by Sophus Bugge in 1903 and Carl Marstrander in 1930, but the full text was not interpreted convincingly until 1981 by Ottar Grønvik in his book Runene på Tunesteinen.

  1. ^Online entry on the Tune stone in Store norske leksikon. [permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Inscription provided from this site's entry on the Tune stone. Slightly adapted to fit Wikipedia.
  3. ^ ab Antonsen (2002:126–127)
  4. ^ abProjektet Samnordisk runtextdatabas – Rundata
  5. ^ Page (1987:31).
  6. ^ Nielsen (2006:267).
  • Antonsen, Elmer H. (2002). Runes and Germanic Linguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN3-11-017462-6 .
  • Grønvik, Ottar (1981). Runene på Tunesteinen: Alfabet, Språkform, Budskap. Universitetsforlaget 82-00-05656-2
  • Nielsen, Hans Frede (2006). "The Early Runic Inscriptions and German Historical Linguistics". In Stoklund, Marie Nielsen, Michael Lerche et al. (eds.). Runes and Their Secrets: Studies in Runology. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN87-635-0428-6 .
  • Page, Raymond Ian (1987). Runes. University of California Press. ISBN0-520-06114-4 .

This Norway-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Contents

Swedish immigrant [3] Olof Öhman said that he found the stone late in 1898 while clearing land he had recently acquired of trees and stumps before plowing. [4] [5] The stone was said to be near the crest of a small knoll rising above the wetlands, lying face down and tangled in the root system of a stunted poplar tree, estimated to be from less than 10 to about 40 years old. [6] The artifact is about 30 × 16 × 6 inches (76 × 41 × 15 cm) in size and weighs 202 pounds (92 kg). Öhman's ten-year-old son, Edward Öhman, noticed some markings, [7] and the farmer later said he thought they had found an "Indian almanac."

During this period the journey of Leif Ericson to Vinland (North America) was being widely discussed and there was renewed interest in the Vikings throughout Scandinavia, stirred by the National Romanticism movement. Five years earlier Norway had participated in the World's Columbian Exposition by sending the Viking, a replica of the Gokstad ship, to Chicago. There was also friction between Sweden and Norway (which ultimately led to Norway's independence from Sweden in 1905). Some Norwegians claimed the stone was a Swedish hoax and there were similar Swedish accusations because the stone references a joint expedition of Norwegians and Swedes. It is thought to be more than coincidental that the stone was found among Scandinavian newcomers in Minnesota, still struggling for acceptance and quite proud of their Nordic heritage. [8]

A copy of the inscription made its way to the University of Minnesota. Olaus J. Breda (1853–1916), professor of Scandinavian Languages and Literature in the Scandinavian Department, declared the stone to be a forgery and published a discrediting article which appeared in Symra during 1910. [9] Breda also forwarded copies of the inscription to fellow linguists and historians in Scandinavia, such as Oluf Rygh, Sophus Bugge, Gustav Storm, Magnus Olsen and Adolf Noreen. They "unanimously pronounced the Kensington inscription a fraud and forgery of recent date". [10]

The stone was then sent to Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. Scholars either dismissed it as a prank or felt unable to identify a sustainable historical context and the stone was returned to Öhman. Hjalmar Holand, a Norwegian-American historian and author, claimed Öhman gave him the stone. [11] However, the Minnesota Historical Society has a bill of sale showing Öhman sold them the stone for $10 in 1911. Holand renewed public interest with an article [12] enthusiastically summarizing studies that were made by geologist Newton Horace Winchell (Minnesota Historical Society) and linguist George T. Flom (Philological Society of the University of Illinois), who both published opinions in 1910. [13]

According to Winchell, the tree under which the stone was found had been destroyed before 1910. Several nearby poplars that witnesses estimated as being about the same size were cut down and, by counting their rings, it was determined they were around 30–40 years old. One member of the team who had excavated at the find site in 1899, county schools superintendent Cleve Van Dyke, later recalled the trees being only ten or twelve years old. [14] The surrounding county had not been settled until 1858, and settlement was severely restricted for a time by the Dakota War of 1862 (although it was reported that the best land in the township adjacent to Solem, Holmes City, was already taken by 1867, by a mixture of Swedish, Norwegian and "Yankee" settlers. [15] )

Winchell estimated that the inscription was roughly 500 years old, by comparing its weathering with the weathering on the backside, which he assumed was glacial and 8000 years old. He also stated that the chisel marks were fresh. [16] More recently geologist Harold Edwards has also noted that "The inscription is about as sharp as the day it was carved. The letters are smooth showing virtually no weathering." [17] Winchell also mentions in the same report that Prof. W. O. Hotchkiss, state geologist of Wisconsin, estimated that the runes were "at least 50 to 100 years." [ clarification needed ] Meanwhile, Flom found a strong apparent divergence between the runes used in the Kensington inscription and those in use during the 14th century. Similarly, the language of the inscription was modern compared to the Nordic languages of the 14th century. [13]

The Kensington Runestone is on display at the Runestone Museum in Alexandria, Minnesota. [18]

The text consists of nine lines on the face of the stone, and three lines on the edge, read as follows: [19]

8 : göter : ok : 22 : norrmen : po : . o : opdagelsefärd : fro : vinland : of : vest : vi : hade : läger : ved : 2 : skjär : en : dags : rise : norr : fro : deno : sten : vi : var : ok : fiske : en : dagh : äptir : vi : kom : hem : fan : 10 : man : röde : af : blod : og : ded : AVM : frälse : äf : illü.

här : (10) : mans : ve : havet : at : se : äptir : vore : skip : 14 : dagh : rise : from : deno : öh : ahr : 1362 :

The sequences rr, ll in gh represent actual digraphs. The AVM is written in Latin capitals. The numbers given in Arabic numerals in the above transcription are given in the pentimal system. At least seven of the runes, including those transcribed a, d, v, j, ä, ö above, are not in any standard known from the medieval period (see below for details). [20] The language of the inscription is close to modern Swedish, the transliterated text being quite easily comprehensible to any speaker of a modern Scandinavian language. The language, being closer to the Swedish of the 19th than of the 14th century, is one of the main reasons for the scholarly consensus dismissing it as a hoax. [21]

"Eight Geats and twenty-two Norwegians on an exploration journey from Vinland to the west. We had camp by two skerries one day's journey north from this stone. We were [out] to fish one day. After we came home [we] found ten men red of blood and dead. AVM (Ave Virgo Maria) save [us] from evil."

"[We] have ten men by the sea to look after our ships, fourteen days' travel from this island. [In the] year 1362."

Holand took the stone to Europe and, while newspapers in Minnesota carried articles hotly debating its authenticity, the stone was quickly dismissed by Swedish linguists.

For the next 40 years, Holand struggled to sway public and scholarly opinion about the Runestone, writing articles and several books. He achieved brief success in 1949, when the stone was put on display at the Smithsonian Institution, and scholars such as William Thalbitzer and S. N. Hagen published papers supporting its authenticity. [22] At nearly the same time, Scandinavian linguists Sven Jansson, Erik Moltke, Harry Anderson and K. M. Nielsen, along with a popular book by Erik Wahlgren, again questioned the Runestone's authenticity. [21]

Along with Wahlgren, historian Theodore C. Blegen flatly asserted [10] Öhman had carved the artifact as a prank, possibly with help from others in the Kensington area. Further resolution seemed to come with the 1976 published transcript [23] of an interview of Frank Walter Gran conducted by Paul Carson, Jr. on August 13, 1967 that had been recorded on audio tape. [24] [25] In it, Gran said his father John confessed in 1927 that Öhman made the inscription. John Gran's story however was based on second-hand anecdotes he had heard about Öhman, and although it was presented as a dying declaration, Gran lived for several more years, saying nothing more about the stone. [ citation needed ]

The possibility of the runestone being an authentic 14th-century artifact was again raised in 1982 by Robert Hall, an emeritus professor of Italian language and literature at Cornell University, who published a book (and a follow up in 1994) questioning the methodology of its critics. Hall asserted that the odd philological problems in the Runestone could be the result of normal dialectal variances in Old Swedish of the period. He further contended that critics had failed to consider the physical evidence, which he found leaning heavily in favor of authenticity.

In The Vikings and America (1986), Wahlgren again stated that the text bore linguistic abnormalities and spellings that he thought suggested the Runestone was a forgery. [26]

Lexical evidence Edit

One of the main linguistic arguments for the rejection of the text as genuine Old Swedish is the term opthagelse farth (updagelsefard) "journey of discovery". This lexeme is unattested in either Scandinavian, Low Franconian or Low German before the 16th century. [27] Similar terms exist in modern Scandinavian (Norwegian oppdagingsferd or oppdagelsesferd, Swedish upptäcktsfärd). "Opdage" is a loan from Low German *updagen, Dutch opdagen, which is in turn from High German aufdecken, ultimately loan-translated from French découvrir "to discover" in the 16th century. [ citation needed ] The Norwegian historian Gustav Storm often used the modern Norwegian lexeme in late 19th-century articles on Viking exploration, creating a plausible incentive for the manufacturer of the inscription to use this word.

Grammatical evidence Edit

Another characteristic pointed out by skeptics is the text's lack of cases. Early Old Swedish (14th century) still retained the four cases of Old Norse, but Late Old Swedish (15th century) reduced its case structure to two cases, so that the absence of inflection in a Swedish text of the 14th century would be an irregularity. Similarly, the inscription text does not use the plural verb forms that were common in the 14th century and have only recently disappeared: for example, (plural forms in parenthesis) "wi war" (warum), "hathe" (hafðe), "[wi] fiske" (fiskaðum), "kom" (komum), "fann" (funnum) and "wi hathe" (hafðum).

Proponents of the stone's authenticity pointed to sporadic examples of these simpler forms in some 14th-century texts and to the great changes of the morphological system of the Scandinavian languages that began during the latter part of that century. [28]

Paleographic evidence Edit

The inscription contains "pentadic" numerals. Such numerals are known in Scandinavia, but nearly always from relatively recent times, not from verified medieval runic monuments, on which numbers were usually spelled out as words.

S. N. Hagen stated "The Kensington alphabet is a synthesis of older unsimplified runes, later dotted runes, and a number of Latin letters . The runes for a, n, s and t are the old Danish unsimplified forms which should have been out of use for a long time [by the 14th century]. I suggest that [a posited 14th century] creator must at some time or other in his life have been familiar with an inscription (or inscriptions) composed at a time when these unsimplified forms were still in use" and that he "was not a professional runic scribe before he left his homeland". [29]

A possible origin for the irregular shape of the runes was discovered in 2004, in the 1883 notes of a then-16-year-old journeyman tailor with an interest in folk music, Edward Larsson. [30] Larsson's aunt had migrated with her husband and son from Sweden to Crooked Lake, just outside Alexandria, in 1870. [31] Larsson's sheet lists two different Futharks. The first Futhark consists of 22 runes, the last two of which are bind-runes, representing the letter-combinations EL and MW. His second Futhark consists of 27 runes, where the last 3 are specially adapted to represent the letters å, ä, and ö of the modern Swedish alphabet. The runes in this second set correspond closely to the non-standard runes in the Kensington inscription. [30]

The abbreviation for Ave Maria consists of the Latin letters AVM. Wahlgren (1958) noted that the carver had incised a notch on the upper right-hand corner of the letter V. [21] The Massey Twins in their 2004 paper argued that this notch is consistent with a scribal abbreviation for a final -e used in the 14th century. [32]

Norse colonies are known to have existed in Greenland from the late 10th century to at least the 14th century, and at least one short-lived settlement was established in Newfoundland, at L'Anse aux Meadows, in the 11th century, but no other widely accepted material evidence of Norse contact with the Americas in the pre-Columbian era has yet emerged. [33] Still, there is some limited documentary evidence for possible 14th-century Scandinavian expeditions to North America.

In a letter by Gerardus Mercator to John Dee, dated 1577, Mercator refers to a Jacob Cnoyen, who had learned that eight men returned to Norway from an expedition to the Arctic islands in 1364. One of the men, a priest, provided the King of Norway with a great deal of geographical information. [34] In the early 19th century, Carl Christian Rafn mentioned a priest named Ivar Bardarsson who had previously been based in Greenland and turns up in Norwegian records from 1364 onward. [ citation needed ]

Furthermore, in 1354, King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden and Norway issued a letter appointing a law officer named Paul Knutsson as leader of an expedition to the colony of Greenland, in order to investigate reports that the population was turning away from Christian culture. [35] Another of the documents reprinted by the 19th-century scholars was a scholarly attempt by Icelandic Bishop Gisli Oddsson, in 1637, to compile a history of the Arctic colonies. He dated the Greenlanders' fall away from Christianity to 1342 and claimed that they had turned instead to America. Supporters of a 14th-century origin for the Kensington Runestone argue that Knutson may, therefore, have travelled beyond Greenland to North America in search of renegade Greenlanders, whereupon most of his expedition was killed in Minnesota, leaving just the eight voyagers to return to Norway. [36]

However, there is no evidence that the Knutson expedition ever set sail (the government of Norway went through considerable turmoil in 1355) and the information from Cnoyen as relayed by Mercator states specifically that the eight men who came to Norway in 1364 were not survivors of a recent expedition, but descended from the colonists who had settled the distant lands several generations earlier. [34] Those early 19th-century books, which aroused a great deal of interest among Scandinavian Americans, would have been available to a late 19th-century hoaxer.

Hjalmar Holand adduced the "blond" Indians among the Mandan on the Upper Missouri River as possible descendants of the Swedish and Norwegian explorers. [37] This was dismissed as "tangential" to the Runestone issue by Alice Beck Kehoe in her 2004 book The Kensington Runestone, Approaching a Research Question Holistically. [38]

One possible route of such an expedition, connecting the Hudson Bay with Kensington, would lead up either Nelson River or Hayes River, [39] through Lake Winnipeg, then up the Red River of the North. [40] The northern waterway begins at Traverse Gap, on the other side of which is the source of the Minnesota River, which flows south to join the Mississippi River at Saint Paul/Minneapolis. [41] This route was examined by Flom (1910), who found that explorers and traders had come from Hudson Bay to Minnesota by this route decades before the area was officially settled. [42]


Vikings in America

Vikings in America. does our New World history begin with Columbus, or with ax-swinging sons of Odin?

A great swath of the country apparently favors the redbeards. Viking statues tower over the travel landscape -- from Deerfield, New Jersey, to Kingsburg, California, to Fort Ransom, North Dakota -- humbling our haughty bronze Columbus monuments.

Aside from these, did our fair-haired forefathers leave clues to mark their passing? Some believe that a mysterious stone tower in Newport, RI, is the oldest building in America, built by the Vikings around AD 1050. Most academics think that it was built by a Colonial farmer, or by refugees of a Chinese treasure ship, but since no records exist, how do they know?

Perhaps the most intriguing debris left by Nordic litterbugs are runestones, mighty slabs of rock with cryptic marks carved into them. Alexandria, Minnesota, has the Kensington Runestone, and the story goes that it was found under the roots of an aspen tree by Olaf Ohman, an illiterate local farmer, in 1898. Real or Forgery?


Big Ole, Alexandria, Minnesota.

Locals believe that the marks are a runic inscription describing a Viking expedition in 1362. The Smithsonian Institution was less enthusiastic about the runestone's authenticity, but they couldn't disprove it, either. And what about the blonde-haired, blue-eyed Indians that missionaries later reported, living in huts "in the Viking style"?

Alexandria's claim to be "Birthplace of America" rests on their runestone. Big Ole, a 28-ft. tall fiberglass Viking statue, lets visitors know that Alexandria takes the claim seriously, as does a 25-foot-tall replica runestone on Hwy. 27, east of the the city. But the authentic item in the Kensington Runestone Museum is at the core of any Nordic parenting claims. "We know there're other runestones out there," says the lady at the museum. "But this is kind of the main runestone."

One of those others is the Heavener Runestone, in Heavener, Oklahoma. The 12-foot high monolith stands outside, shielded in a big box. According to the folks inthe interpretive center, the enscription on it dates back to AD 600-900, and tells the story of "Glome" who used the rock to lay claim to this part of the Sooner State.

As in Alexandria, the folks here do not diss other runestones, knowing that Alexandria's rock is yet more evidence that Columbus was a Euro-come-lately. "They've got their runestone, we've got ours," the Heavener folks explain. "Ours is older."

Other, less-glamorous runestones are in nearby Poteau and Shawnee. The Vikings (or some local farmers) were busy boys.


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